Monday, April 3, 2017

ch. 24 | Baroque in Italy & Spain

google drive Art History AP notes
17th century italy & spain
  • division of nations
  • elimination of city states
  • got rid of Duchys, Republics, etc.
  • extensive New World exploration (expansion, taking wealth):
Spain > Mexico, Philippines
France > Canada, Asia, Caribbean
England > Canada, Asia, Australia
Portugal > South America
Netherlands > Caribbean, South Africa
  • France & England fighting over Canada
  • Galileo + telescope
  • Newton + microscope
  • opera= union of music & theatre
  • integration/fusion of architecture, sculpture, & painting (Bernini & st. peter's basilica)
counter reformation
council of trent (1563)
the procrastination/denial of the catholic church in response to Protestantism was considered too little, too late [Martin Luther, 95 theses- 1517]
-response of the catholic church in Europe:
  • prohibition of nude images in religious art
  • art must be accessible to the general public & easy to comprehend
  • art should inspire the view to higher spiritual devotion
  • renewed veneration of Saints in art
  • megalomaniacal expansion of St. Peter's basilica
key artists:
  • gian lorenzo bernini
  • borromini
  • caravaggio de marisi
  • artemesia gentileschi
  • pietro da cortona
  • zurbaran
  • diego velazquez
10 characteristics of the baroque era:
  1. relative clarity of figures & narrative elements
  2. variable light intensity via tenebrism (extreme use of light & shadow) or a transcendent source
  3. inclusive subject matter that requires the viewer to complete the meaning
  4. compositional dynamism w emphatic diagonals & recessionals
  5. polychromatic colours imply vigor & excitement
  6. dramatic body language via gaze, gesture, or posture
  7. multiple points of view (various revelations)
  8. unity of form, theme, place (full integration of elements)
  9. open compositions considered to be extraverted spaces that invite the viewer & extend beyond borders
  10. abstract theme of the fusion of matter & spirit

figure 24-4
Saint Peter's (Piazza & colonnade)- Bernini
break open the ovoid to welcome everyone, not just the erudite
dramatic gesture of embrace 
figure 24-5
baldacchino- bernini
bronze, 1624-1633
twisted columns, canopy in foreground
imitation of Solomon's temple
marks the high altar in the nave
& tomb of St. Peter beneath the basilica
visually bridges marble floor & vaults & dome
Throne of Saint Peter- Bernini
solar disk
dove in background
Constantine- Bernini
Constantine on horseback w robe falling down
moment of conversion/moment he converts to Christianity
curtain behind him falls, representing his ignorance
David- Bernini
marble, 1623
expansive & theatrical, dynamic
emotion-packed, dramatic
active & moving
capture split- second of maximum action
body armour at feet was offered by King Saul but
david rejected it bc he placed his faith in the Lord
we wonder what he's thinking/ his emotional reaction
figure 24-8
ecstasy of saint teresa- bernini
figure 24-6A
apollo & daphne- bernini
 apollo wants the nymph daphne, she doesn't want him
she ran away & the gods answered her prayers
by turning her into a tree
Saint Longinus- bernini
saint that speared the side of Christ
moment of conversion
mouth agape, awestruck
knot of drapery= spiritual struggle
chiastic pose (derives from letter from greek "chi" = "x
Blessed Ludovica Albertoni- Bernini
1671- 1674
drapery= struggle btwn body & spirit
last breath before death
momentum mori
Fountains of Bernini in Rome (first to do sculptures in fountains):
-created aural sensation (see/hear water)

Piazza Barberini
The Four Rivers

Neptune & Triton- bernini
representative of dynamism of period
Neptune= God of the sea
  • expression of emotion in art: Alexander (Hellenistic) vs. Neptune (Baroque)
figure 24-9
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane- Borromini
Undulating facade
counterpose: concave to convex
integration of exterior to interior space
entrance on corner (antithetical to Renaissance)
a lot of movement implied

figure 24-11
view of dome of san carlo alle quattro fontane- borromini
rome, italy, 1638-1641
dome of heaven- max. light into dome through windows (interior)
coffered ceiling (interior)
-influenced by the vigor & dramatic moment depicted in Bernini's works of art
-focused on Naturalism w a hint of idealism
-oblique backgrounds
-tenebrism (stage lighting- often as diagonal shafts)
-humble humans (feet)
-golden glow/flush flesh
-genres: sacred/portrait/still life/genre
  • tenebrism: exaggeration of light- chiaroscuro to max
figure 24-18
calling of saint matthew- caravaggio
hint of a halo
injected naturalism into representation of sacred subjects
unidealized figures
setting: tavern
stark contrast btwn light & dark
Christ summons Levi the tax collector (St. Matthew) to a higher calling
inspiration of matthew- caravaggio
hint of a halo
figure 24-18B
entombment of Christ- caravaggio
stone corner coming out at you
strong diagonal lines lead the eyes
curves= recessionals= confines the shape
man looking at you to draw you in & make you feel emotions
doubting thomas- caravaggio
focal point at hole
diagonals & gaze point to it
recessionals bring movement back
repeating lines (wrinkles, hands, etc.) unify
david- caravaggio
david holding goliath's head (which was caravaggio's face)
self immolation

Diego Velazquez:
  • bodegones: scenes of daily life with strong elements of still life in the composition
-no one is idealized/romanticized/etc.
-elevates/honors status of "little people"= dwarfism
-"little people"= brought into court to teach children bc non-threatening & learned= au pair

figure 24-29
water carrier of seville- Velazquez
don diego- Velazquez
beggar- Velazquez
figure 24-31
las meninas- Velazquez
artist (Velazquez) working on formal portrait, looking at you
reflection of queen & king
Princess Christina (sp?), dwarf, ladies in waiting
painting technique attributed to Titian of Venice
Venus & Mirror- Velazquez
curtain= uncovering
blurry face in mirror
similar to Venus of Urbino
Venus & Cupid also in Bronzino's piece
Baroque in Northern Europe (Flanders, Netherlands, France-17th c)
  • more secular in the north
  • higher level of realism- not ideal portrait
baroque characteristics:
  • variable light
  • compositional dynamism (diagonals, recessionals)
  • extraversion- doesn't hide message, overt
  • open composition
  • crescendo moment
  • dramatic body language
  • implied movement (transformation)
key artists:
  • peter paul rubens
  • rembrandt van rijn
  • johannes vermeer 
  • pieter claesz
  • nicolas poussin
  • claude lorrain
  • georges de la tour
  • hyacinthe rigaud 
Peter Paul Rubens
  • specialty- depiction of human flesh
  • vigorous movement & dynamic energy
  • robust figures
  • expressive faces
  • writhing bodies
  • implied circular motion
  • dense narrative content
figure 25-2
the raising of the cross- rubens
variable light
all gazes led to christ
horse has piercing eyes

figure 25-3
consequences of war- rubens
circular movement
venus (?)- voluptuous
hint of blue sky = metaphor for optimism
torrent on the right = darkness
diagonals everywhere
torch- singular hope/light of reason
man w pallor of death
man w torch = look of fear
man on his back (right) = architect -> order goes to chaos, he's losing his tools
baby figures trying to cling onto maternal figures
reds create a diagonal, represent blood/sacrifice/passion/anger
propaganda piece- cautionary tale for greed (?)
Rembrandt van Rijn
  • known for feather in hat (from exotic birds) & beady eyes
  • baroque exuberance w protestant conservatism
  • beloved wife, Saskia (who died), included in several compositions
  • transcendent illuminations in compositions
  • optical clarity & precision
  • opaque hue application
  • crescendo moment narratives
  • oil paintings of the old & new testament
  • total financial bankruptcy in last decade of his life
  • sterilization from surviving child
figure 25-12
the anatomy lesson of dr. tulp- rembrandt
science & discovery of human anatomy/body
figure 25-13
the night watch- rembrandt
group of "good ol' boys"
group portrait
put his wife in the male-only portrait

figure 25-15
self-portrait- rembrandt
expressive face, revealing the soul
controlled use of light
nonspecific setting
figure 25-15A
self-portrait- rembrandt
psychology of light
spiritual quality
Johannes Vermeer
  • optical clarity
  • symbiosis of light & color
  • meticulous detail
  • serene interiors
  • role of women
  • genre/vedute
  • 34 paintings in lifetime
  • evidence of pin hole- difficulty w perspective
  • secular subject matter
  • experimentation w camera obscura 
little street in delft- vermeer
skill w depicting architecture
figure 25-1
allegory of the art of painting- vermeer
1670-1675, oil on canvas
figure 25-18C
the letter- vermeer
highly idealized depictions of social values of the burghers
figure 25-24

Louis XIV- Hyacinthe Rigaud
rise of aristocracy
hair & "heels" give him height
presenting his legs- Louis invented stockings that wouldn't show his cellulite
propaganda: france is powerful
fleur de lis became decorative motif

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