Sunday, March 5, 2017

ch. 22 | high & late renaissance + mannerism


high renaissance & mannerism in cinquecento italy (1495-1600)
-further development of classical cultures, perspective, proportion, & human anatomy 
-MASTERY

key renaissance artists:
  • leonardo da vinci
  • raphael- rome
  • michelangelo
  • giovanni bellini
  • giorgione
  • titian- oil
key artists in mannerism- stylistic to fight against renaissance
  • tintoretto
  • veronese
  • pontormo
  • parmigianino
  • bronzino
  • giovanni da bologna
10 characteristics of the high renaissance:
  • absolute clarity- of figures or narrative elements
  • ideal light - bathing key figures in the composition that enhances their auras
  • exlusive subject matter- only highly educated people would understand, for erudite audience
  • compositional harmony- symmetry, logic, order
  • primary triad of colours- pure colors represent divinity
  • ideal proportions- of human body
  • geometricity- triangle square circle
  • single focal point- additional foci in some instances
  • closed composition- containment of bracketing off elements- column, tree, building, etc.
  • humanistic themes- in relation to society, politics, psychology, religion, philosophy
leonardo da vinci:
  • born in vinci in tuscany
  • copious notebooks
  • non finito- didn't finish things
  • cartoons: prepatory drawing or sketch, pinholes to transfer drawing
  • sfumato: smokiness, representation of atmospheric perspective, misty haziness
  • chiaroscuro: articulation of light to dark "clarity" "darkness"
  • interested in gaze, gesture, facial expressions
  • provided psychological insight in biblical narrative & contemporary personalities
  • heart of painting= light & shadow, expressing emotional states
madonna of the rocks- leonardo da vinci
1483
sfumato
Ginevra de' Benci- Leonardo da Vinci
circa 1473
vitruvian man- leonardo da vinci
1490
l'uomo universale- “a man can do all things if he will.”
ideal geometry
proportion- 8 hands

fig. 22-3
Madonna & Child w Saint Anne & the Infant St. John (cartoon/sketch)- Leonardo Da Vinci
ca. 1505-1507, charcoal heightened w white on brown paper
fig. 22-4
last supper- leonardo da vinci
milan oil & tempera on plaster, 1495-98
refectory in milan- s. maria della grazie (mary full of grace)
3 open windows - trinity
christ in shape of triangle w primary triad
closed composition-ends turned inward
jesus- focal point, christ under arch- de facto halo
divine geometry- circle, square, triangle, etc.
first work in western art showing psychological reaction
primary triad- christ wears blue, red, & pigment is yellow
one of christ's hands is up, ones is down- referring to God & Satan
perspective & created vanishing point using architecture
fig. 22-5
mona lisa- leonardo da vinci
ca. 1503-1505, oil on wood
position, body facing one way, face shifts a different way
eyes follow you- illusion of shift in space
is she smiling or not?
mona= short for madonna= child-bearing woman
fig. 22-6
the fetus and the lining of the uterus- leonardo da vinci
(notes on anatomy, physics, engineering, science of optics, military
inventions, botany, irrigation systems, aeronautics)
ca. 1511- 1513, pen & ink w wash over red chalk & traces of black chalk
intro to less expensive paper

MATERIALS & TECHNIQUES: RENAISSANCE DRAWINGS
-Most artists drew on parchment (prepared from the skins of calves, sheep and goats) or on vellum (made from the skin of young animals).
-In the late 15th century, the introduction of less expensive paper, made of fibrous pulp and produced for the developing printing industry, enabled the artists to paint with more freedom.
-Federico Zuccari stated that drawing is the external physical manifestation of an internal intellectual idea or design.
-The design or dimension of art production became increasingly important as artists cultivated their own styles. 
-In Italian literature, the terms often invoked to praise esteemed artists included invenzione (invention), ingegno (innate talent), fantasia (imagination), and capriccio (originality).

ARTISTS ON ART: LEONARDO & MICHELANGELO, PAINTING VS. SCULPTURE:
-Leonardo preferred painting rather than sculpture, going as far as to regard sculpting as “lowly manual labor.”
-In Leonardo’s writings, titled Treatise on Painting, he wrote that “painting is a matter of greater mental analysis, of greater skill, and more marvelous than sculpture.”
-Leonardo begins bashing sculpting in his writing when he states that sculpture, being a [pover-ish] media “cannot comprise and include within itself all visible things such as color and their diminution.”
-Michelangelo, however, saw himself as primarily being a sculptor.
-Decades later, in a letter to Bendetto Varchio, a famous poet, as if in response to Leonardo’s writings, Michelangelo stated “I used to consider that sculpture was the lantern of painting and- that the two things there was the same difference as that between the sun and the moon”
-Although Michelangelo thought the two media of being very different he seemed more respectful in their differences. But Michelangelo goes on to say “But now I consider that painting and sculpture are one and the same” showing that he has an appreciation for both sculpture and painting alike.

raphael:
  • clarity > obscurity
  • weightened triangle
  • plump children
  • outstretched/pointed toe
  • modest Madonna (averted gaze)
fig. 22-8
madonna in the meadow- raphael
1505-1506, oil on wood
used da vinci's pyramidal composition
well-lit landscape, absolute clarity, ideal light
grace, dignity, beauty
exclusive subject matter (only educated audience would know)
compositional harmony, primary triad
red- foreshadowing of Christ's sacrifice
fig. 22-9
philosophy/school of athens- raphael
rome, italy, 1509-1511, buon fresco
gathering of philosophers & scientists
closed composition- architecture
reviving greek & roman antiquity
face of artist looking out at us on right
plato= abstract, aristotle= concrete
fig. 22-10A
baldassare castiglione- raphael
portrait of patron
ca. 1514

WRITTEN SOURCES: GIORGIO VASARI'S LIVES
-architect & painter that trained in Michelangelo's Florentine workshop
-"father of art history"
-published Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (1530)
-virtually created discipline of art history 
-3 major periods of art history:
  • "glorious" Greco-Roman age
  • Middle Ages, when only inferior art was produced
  • Renaissance, when classical art was reborn
-subdivisions of Renaissance:
  • Cimabue & Giotto (artists broke away from maniera greca) 
  • Quattracento (artists began to employ linear perspective & more naturalism) 
  • Cinquecento (when Leonardo, Raphael, & Michelangelo achieved perfection)
Michelangelo:
-pioneer in architecture, sculpture, & painting

fig. 22-12
Pietà- michelangelo
ca. 1498-1500, marble
signed work in mary's sash
captures sadness & beauty of the young virgin
controversial bc mary looks younger than her son- frozen in time at her most pure
mary's body is large as a pyramidal form to support the weight
mary's hands do not touch christ to show his being on a different realm
madonna of the stairs- michelangelo
1482-92
fig. 22-13
david- michelangelo
1501-1504, marble
heroic classical nudity
intellectual- thinking about how to defeat goliath
stone is hidden, physically & intellectually adept
tree trunk= support
neck is longer bc viewers from down below
fig. 22-17
sistine chapel (ceiling)- michelangelo
1508-1512, fresco
barrel vaulted roof- tromp l'oeil
fig. 22-1

interior of Sistine Chapel- Michelangelo Buonarroti
Vatican City, Rome, Italy, wall frescoes, 1508-1512, 1536-1541

fig. 22-18
creation of adam- michelangelo
sistine chapel ceiling, 1508-1512, fresco
recalls communication btwn gods & heroes in classical myths
rejected traditional iconographical convention
focal point btwn fingers of adam & God- spark/touch of life
adam & cool colors- chill, calm, languid
God & warm colors- active, movement
concave vs. convex
fig. 22-18A

fall of man- michelangelo
ca. 1510, buon fresco, sistine chapel
serpent looks female
synoptic narrative- more than one thing happening
paradise-> temptation-> fall-> expulsion
right side looks like massaccio's expulsion
fig. 22-19
Last Judgement- Michelangelo
 altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy
1536-1541. Fresco, 48’ x 44’
Commissioned by Pope Paul III
Christ: stern judge of world, raises arm in gesture of destroying all creation
Trumpeting angels, ascending figures of the saved
Downward hurtling figures of the sinners
Vision of the fate awaiting sinners
Virgin next to Christ, the side of the blessed
Opposite side- demons
Impresses on viewers Christ’s wrath on judgement day
manneristic aspects
all figures were nude until popes ordered cover-ups
fig. 22-20
florentine pieta- michelangelo
1500, marble
shift away from high renaissance to mannerism
tried to carve 4 life-sized figures from single block

THE PATRON'S VOICE: THE COUNCIL OF TRENT
-catholics & protestants: devotional imagery important in religious life
-catholics: art was valuable for cultivating piety
-protestants: religious imagery -> idolatry & distracted from developing personal relationship w God
-counter-reformation effort: pope paul III convened council of trent to review controversial doctrines
-council's edict regarding church's role as patron of paintings & sculptures:
  • bishops, others who hold office of teaching, etc. guide the faithful in matters related to intercession & invocation of saints, veneration of relics, use of images
  • images of Christ, Mary, & saints are to be placed in churches & given honor & respect bc it transfers to the prototypes they represent
  • images remind the people of the gifts from Christ, salutary examples of miracles of God through the saints
  • no unusual images can be placed in a church unless approved by the bishop
-catholic church reaffirmed role as greatest art patron of cinquecento

high renaissance in venice
-same 10 key characteristics as italy
-extensive use of primary triad
-asymmetrical balance
-idyllic landscapes
-color & light
  • most florentine & roman artists emphasized careful design preparation (disegno)
  • disegno: preliminary drawing
  • venetian artists (like bellini & giorgione) focused on color & colorito, landscape, & poesia
  • colorito: process of paint application
  • poesia: poetic approach to painting
Titian:
  • established oil-based pigment as preferred painting medium in Western art
  • set standard for representations of the reclining female nude, whether divine or mortal
  • rich surface textures
  • dazzling display of color in all its nuances
fig. 22-36
assumption of the virgin- titian
1515-1518, oil on wood
conveyed light through color
separation of earth & heavenly realms
many cherub faces making up heaven
meant to look like twisting in motion
people on earth are reaching up to her
feeling of vertical motion
plump children influenced by raphael
fig. 22-39
venus of urbino- titian
1536-1538, oil on canvas
rape of europa- titian
1562
zeus (disguised as animals) seduces the woman
venus anadyomene- titian
1520
interested in the flesh, woman figures
adam & eve- titian
1550
serpent w child face
saint sebastian- titian
1570
losing clarity bc he was losing his sight-
used fingertips to paint
flaying of marsyas- titian
1570
marsyas= part man, part goat
being skinned alive
red throughout composition
challenged apollo to a competition in playing their instruments
 to see who can seduce the people & animals but apollo is a God 
fig. 22-41
pieta- titan & palma II giovane
ca. 1570-1576, oil on canvas
broad brushstrokes, thick impasto
portrayed himself as st. jerome kneeling before dead Christ
ART & SOCIETY: WOMEN IN THE RENAISSANCE ART WORLD
-renaissance world was male dominated
-training required staying in a master's house, preventing women from being able to gain experience
-women were barred from drawing nude models
-some women surmounted the barriers & earned a good reputation (Sofonisba Anguissola, Lavinia Fontana, Properzia de' Rossi)
-renaissance women had great influence as art patrons
-one of the most important patrons: isabella d'este

ARTISTS ON ART: PALMA IL GIOVANE ON TITIAN
-important change in mid-16th century: adoption of canvas in place of wood panels
-titian established oil-based pigment on canvas as standard medium
-palma il giovane was titian's student
-in the last stages, titian painted more w his fingers than brushes

PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS: HOW TO IMPRESS A POPE
-artists depended on commissions from churches, town councils, princes, wealthy merchants, etc.
-parmigianino became a leading figure among the "mannerists"
-he painted a self-portrait in an unconventional format to impress pope clement VII

mannerism (1520-1600):
  • prime feature of mannerist art is artifice
  • less inclined to disguise the contrived nature of art production
  • ambiguous space, departures from conventions, unusual presentations of traditional themes
  • leading mannerist architect: giulio romano
  • departure from compositions of earlier Renaissance
  1. attenuation of figures (elongation)
  2. crowded compositions
  3. unbelievable space (ambiguous)
  4. incongruent colors
  5. illogical narratives
  6. disproportional heads (non-ideal) 
  7. emphasis on verticality
  8. unbridled emotions
  9. violated containment (non-closed)
fig. 22-42
entombment of Christ- Jacopo da Pontormo
1525-1528, oil on wood
Capponi Chapel, Florence, Italy
mannerism
instead of concentrating mass in the center, he left a void
the person underneath christ is on tip-toes & body folds in an unusual way
vertically stacked- looks like everyone is floating
fig. 22-44
Madonna with the long neck- Parmigianino
1534-1540, oil on wood
Baiardi Chapel, Parma, Italy
stylish elegance that was principal aim of Mannerism
small oval head, long & slender neck, attenuated hands, sinuous body
baby looks sickly
the column is holding nothing up
fig. 22-45
venus, cupid, folly, and time- bronzino
ca. 1546, oil on wood
cupid fondling mother, Venus
lascivious undertones to learned allegories
father time in the right corner- revealing "secret" under the "cape"
person behind cupid has syphilis?
fig. 22-48
last supper- tintoretto
1594, oil on canvas
imbued w emotional power, depth of spiritual vision
glowing venetian color schemes, dramatic lighting
more than just the 12 disciples w jesus- pulls focus from christ
ghost-like/angel figures
fig. 22-49
christ in the house of levi- paolo veronese
1573, oil on canvas
refectory of santi giovanni e paolo
superb color & majestic classical settings
his version of the last supper--> sacrilegious
easy to not see Christ
  • anachronistic: belonging to a period other than that being portrayed
PATRON'S VOICE: FEDERIGO GONZAGA, GIULIO ROMANO, & THE PALAZZO DEL TE
-patrons had a powerful voice in content & form of the artworks they paid for
-Gonzaga (duke of mantua) showered Giulio (painter/architect) w gifts & accepted Giulio's proposal to construct a grandiose palace when he had planned only to invest in a modest retreat
-giulio's mannerist divergences from architectural convention shows in the palazzo del te

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