Monday, February 13, 2017

colourpop | purchases

a couple of days ago, i saw a post on twitter talking about how colourpop was having some kind of valentine's day deal- buy $15 or more & get free shipping. now, usually i don't wear make-up other than lipstick but i decided to have a look anyways. 

i ended up purchasing 2 items & they finally came. 


now, my lips always get dry whenever i wear my lipsticks so when i saw this "lippie primer" (below, left), i thought wow i probably should check this out.

i also wanted to buy a lippie that actually had color so i chose the darkest color out of my three maybes- "only you" (below, right) which is described as a mocha color.


i haven't tried either one just yet but i'm really excited to & hopefully they don't disappoint.

if you use colourpop, have any experiences w it, or have a favorite product, don't be afraid to comment & let me know. i would love any suggestions :)

Monday, February 6, 2017

ch. 21 | the renaissance in quattrocento italy

  • elevation of the individual
  • major shift of power from church to the patron
key artists:
  • lorenzo ghiberti
  • filippo brunelleschi
  • donatello
  • verrocchio ("true eye")
  • pollaiuolo (human form in action)
  • jacopo della quercia
  • masaccio (couldn't make a living w sculpture so started painting)
  • fra angelico (lived in a monestary) 
  • andrea del castagno (powerful last supper depiction)
  • paolo uccello
  • sandro botticelli (birth of venus, primavera)
  • perugino
  • luca signorelli
  • piero della francesca
  • mantegna (leads up to birth of high renaissance, full perspective figures, foreshortening)
early italian renaissance:
-condottiere
-di sotto in su
-ogival
-orthogonal
-pilaster
-tondo
-tromp l'oeil
-revitalization of classical ideals 
-humanism, secular
-anatomy/nudes
-architecture: open light spaces, balance, symmetry
-painting: linear perspective (Brunelleschi)
-perspective/proportions

renaissance humanism:
  • shift in focus from divine subject matter to human endeavors in life & art 
  • emphasis on potential of individual 
  • spirit of competition & quest for human excellence
the medici of florence:
  • giovanni (banker, merchant)
  • cosimo (refurbished & updated dominican library at s. marco, supported fra angelico)
  • lorenzo the magnificent (master patron of arts, endowments equivalent to $20 million in 15th c)
the florentine revival:
-medici family as patrons
-italian architects revived classical style
-focus on sculpture
-revival of:
  • equestrian monuments
  • death masks (lorenzo medici, ghiberti)
  • statuettes in bronze of mythological figures for domiciles (marsyas, herakles, hermes)
  • church pulpit & door embellishments 
commission competition (1401)
  • important not only for quality of work submitted but also showcased key elements associated w mature Renaissance art:
-personal/guild patronage 
-esteem accorded to individual artists
-development of new pictorial illusionism
  • focus on God's order to Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac as a demonstration of devotion
fig. 21-2
brunelleschi
east doors- baptistry of duomo
1401-1402
subject mater: sacrifice of isaac
theme: history (sacred)
uses more material
quatrafoil design
tell story w images
focal point is isaac & abraham
violent movement & high emotion

fig. 21-3
ghiberti
east doors- baptistry of duomo
1401-1402
subject mater: sacrifice of isaac 
theme: history (sacred)
more comtemporary, believable, naturalistic, muscles
angel- foreshortening
grace & smoothness
Abraham in a Gothic pose (outthrust hip)
figure of Isaac recalls Greco-Roman statuary

fig. 21-10
gates of paradise- ghiberti
north doors baptistry duomo florence
1425-52
bronze w gold gild
ARTISTS ON ART: THE COMMENTARII OF LORENZO GHIBERTI
-first renaissance art historian
-Commentarii book 1 talks about admiration for naturalistic art of classical antiquity
-Commentarii book 2 deals w the art of his own time & an autobiography of him
-Commentarii book 3 talks about the disciplines that a sculptor must master
-praises Cavallini, Orcagna, Lorenzetti, Martini, Duccio
-admired sculptors: Giovanni, Pisano
-fame & glory increasingly accorded to individual achievement in 15th century italy

fig. 21-9
Isaac and his sons- lorenzo ghiberti
east doors of Gates of Paradise of the Baptistery of San Giovanni
1425-1452, gilded bronze, Florence, Italy
linear perspective, vanishing point
PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS: LINEAR PERSPECTIVE
-Quattrocento: development of linear perspective
-developed by filippo brunelleschi
-perspective= "to see through"
-trying to represent depth in a 2-D painting or relief
-brought all visual sensations under a simple rule that could be expressed mathematically
-perspective was a way to order & clarify their compositions
-allows artists to determine mathematically the relative size of objects to correlate them w visual recession into space
-artist needs to identify the horizon line, select a vanishing point, & draw orthogonals

Donatello:
saint mark- donatello
designed for architectural niches
the noble visage (face)- saints look like wise elders

pazzi madonna- donatello
subject: christ child & mother mary, 1422
intimacy & emotional connection

judith & holofernes- donatello
holofernes= assyrian general that was pillaging judith's city
he got drunk & she decapitated him
engages you from all angles

the penitent magdalene- donatello
c. 1455
subject matter: woman in prayer
genre: history- sacred/portrait
medium: sculpture
technique: reductive
pathos
fig. 21-11
david- donatello (1440-1460)
head of goliath at feet
genre: history-sacred/portrait
nude- only wearing hat & boots
contraposto pose
more feminine
feather
fig. 21-12
david- verrocchio (1465-1470)
head of goliath at feet
genre: history-sacred/portrait
stronger, more physically developed
hero pose
  • pathos- expression of extreme sadness, grief or depression
ART & SOCIETY: IMITATION & EMULATION IN RENAISSANCE ART
-renaissance artists valued imitation
-many 15/16th century artists developed unique styles but convention predominated 
-certain themes, motifs, & compositions appear regularly 
-imitation: renaissance artists believed that the best way to learn was to copy the works of masters
-emulation: next step after imitation; modeling one's art after that of another artist

Brunelleschi:
-patriarch of renaissance architecture, style of order & equilibrium= standard for the next 400 years
-linear perspective ingenuity manifested in architecture
-development of hydraulic system to elevate bricks & mortar

cupola of Duomo- filippo brunelleschi
1420-36
unique eight rib engineering of "Double" cupola- 2 domes
interior of Santo Spirito- brunelleschi
1434-35
logic & order. equal articulation of arcades
corinthian columns, coffers (cut out boxes) to get rid of weight
clerestory windows (round ocular windows)
perfect geometry, order, harmony, ideal light
  • clerestory windows: (round ocular windows) any window you can't see out of, above eye level, alludes to light of heaven, separation of mortal & divine
fig. 21-30

ospedale degli innocenti- brunelleschi
florence, italy, 1419
hospital /facility for protection of young children
medallions btwn each arch have details of children
swaddled children- protection/cared for

ART & SOCIETY: ITALIAN RENAISSANCE FAMILY CHAPEL ENDOWMENTS
-very wealthy families sponsored chapels in the form of separate buildings adjacent to churches
-endowed to ensure the well-being of souls of individual family members & ancestors
-served as burial sites & spaces for liturgical celebrations & commemorative services
-chapel owners sponsored masses for the dead
-1215, the concept of purgatory was officially recognized by pope innocent III
-lead to trying to earn salvation through good work/deeds & devotional practices
-most patrons also commissioned decorations (painted altarpieces, frescoes, sculptures)

ARTISTS ON ART: LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI'S ON THE ART OF BUILDING
-wrote De re aedificatori libri X (on the art of building in ten books)
-first renaissance architect to understand classical architecture in depth
-sought to ennoble the profession of architect
-believed that designs should reflect the laws of nature & conform to mathematical formulas
-brunelleschi & alberti shared belief in eternal & universal validity of numerical ratios as sources of beauty

equestrian monuments:
  • prototype from roman antiquity: marcus aurelius - propaganda: might of roman empire 
fig. 21-15
gattamelata- donatello
equestrian figure, 1453
downturned mouth, staring off into space
ball under horse anchors structure - functional device
fig. 21-16
bartolommeo colleoni- verrocchio
1496
chest puffed out, looking down on you,
prouder, horse armored 
battle of the nudes- pollaiuolo
circa 1470
medium: printmaking
technique: inaglio
method: engraving
all muscles are tense, focus on anatomy
expulsion of adam and eve from the paradise- jacopa della quercia
contrapposto (shift in weight) & temptation/expulsion iconography
adam's furrowed brow, eve's coquettish look
power of body language: gesture, gaze, torque
adam's taking the brunt of physical punishment
fig. 21-20
holy trinity-masaccio
1427, buon fresco
ideal geometric architecture
implied linear perspective: illusion of 3 dimensional space
memento mori (skeleton at bottom)- in case you don't subscribe to faith- propaganda
dove (around God's neck) of holy spirit descending onto christ
body twisted slightly
ionic capitals
fig. 21-19
expulsion of adam & eve from eden - masaccio
eve's eyes hollowed out
lines = God's voice
angel= foreshortening
emotional
suggested landscape
anatomical accuracy
fig. 21-18
tribute money- masaccio
pedagogical iconography
branacci chapel- santa maria del carmine florence, 1427
sculptural forms into painted figures
synoptic narrative
3 stories in one- tax collector, jesus telling them to get money out of fish, getting money out of fish
skin color of tax collector= "an outsider"
iconographical components:
  • the last supper
  • symbol of divinity: (christ) (open window)
  • symbol of humanity: (disciples) (12 tribes)
  • spiritual sustenance: (bread)
  • sacrifice: (wine) (extended arms/to frame)
  • betrayal: judas, figure of dark complexion, coins, knife
  • trinity (primary colors) open window, inexplicable light source
fig. 21-22
last supper- andrea del castagno
refectory- s. apollonia, florence
1447, buon fresco
judas on other side of table & darker & w/o halo
marble window points towards main scene
fig. 21-21
annuncation- fra. angelico
ca. 1438-1447, fresco
san marco, florence, italy
accurate bodies & drapery
fig. 21- 28
primavera (Spring)- sandro botticelli
tempera on wood, 1482
cycle of life of a woman
tree arch= "de facto halo"
flowers in prime of reproductive time
cupid is blindfolded
medici oranges- so wealthy that they had oranges even tho they don't have it in italy
lorenzo the magnificent or mercury (hermes) picking oranges
turned away- he's gay & physically uninterested in the women
three graces dancing- ideal /prime characteristics of the female in society,
diff angles of human body, classical & peaceful
diaphanous gown- see through
zephyr (west wind)- sucking the life out of her
fig. 21-1
birth of venus- botticelli
1486
venus arose from seafoam- goddess of love & intellect
based off greco-roman prototype
zephyr & flora, her attendant
fig. 21- 28A
young man holding a medal- sandro botticelli
 medal of cosimo de' medici
circa 1475
gold coin- wealth, red cap- associated as cleric
no separation of church & state- corruption
fig. 21-42
the damned cast into hell (or damnation)- luca signorelli
1499-1502, fresco
polychromatic
foreshortened muscular bodies
propaganda- last judgement kind of thing

piero della francesa:

  • became one of the most innovative of cusp of high renaissance
  • nickname: walnut eyes
baptism of christ- piero della francesa
1450, tempera on wood
sense of calm, dove
start of christ's public ministry

flagellation- piero della francesca
1465
figures are complacent- don't do anything bc christ is about to be beat
fig. 21-25
resurrection- piero della francesca
fresco, 1463
trees on right are alive, trees on left are dead (dead and came back to life)
one of guards= self portrait of artist
sleep= metaphor for death, blind to resurrection of christ- ignorance
physical enhancement in body- power/stronger in resurrection
christ rises majestically from the tomb
right hand w banner and red cross- symbol of victory over dead
halo- more realistic, not a circle
Resurrection= city logo of San Sepocro, city's heart & identity
guard w head back- first time foreshortening, walnut eyes
jesus separated spiritually & physically from guards, on his own plane, presented frontally
one guard has no legs, jesus has a 6 pack
resurection is hard bc bible has no description of event, only what happened afterwards

fig. 21-43

battista sforza and federico da montefeltro- piero della francesca
ca. 1472- 1474, oil & tempera on wood
tribute to wife's (battista) death
fig. 21-49
palazzo ducale- andrea mantegna
ceiling fresco, 1474
trompe l'oeil
  • trompe l'oeil- to fool the eye into seeing space that's not really there
fig. 21-50
corpus christi/lamentation of christ/dead christ- andrea mantegna
tempera on canvas, 1500
foreshortening, more visual punch than showing from the side
wounds in feet, hint of a halo

the nude in art | video notes

adam & eve:
  • nudity went from beauty to sin
greeks:
  • glorified males bc militaristic society
christian religion:
  • removed/censored nudity bc it was evil/work of the devil
hindu beliefs:
  • love making= union of soul & divine, understanding of universe
giotto:
  • still portrayed nude as sin
  • last judgement painting: on the right- nude figures raped, violated, devoured in hell
botticelli:
  • birth of venus: nudity is central bc it's about to be covered up by a cloak, "perfect beauty"
  • ^manifesto of shifting status of nude- something to be celebrated, beautiful, natural
michelangelo:
  • statue of david: biblical + classical values, reminiscent of classical greek
  • ^symbol of male beauty, challenges viewer, proud of nakedness
  • sistine chapel: some nudes were painted over bc too risque 
  • ^set a trend in which artists painted biblical figures in nude 
titian:
  • "venus": laying naked, hand covering genitals
  • ^women as goddesses & sexual being 
leonardo da vinci:
  • italian renaissance= human wasn't so sinful, man, not god, was center of world
  • vitruvian man: rendered nude more accurately, body fit in perfect circle & square shapes 
  • heralded a shift in way humanity saw itself
  • man stripped down into natural state

ch. 20 | late medieval & early renaissance northern europe


late 14th, early 15th century

northern european secular aesthetics- notions of beauty:
  • receding hairline
  • hair horns= piety 
  • pale skin
  • pear-shaped
  • extended abdomen
  • no discernible waistline
key artists:
  • robert campin (master of flemalle)
  • jan van eyck
  • rogier van der weyden
  • martin schongauer
  • hugo van der goes 
  • albrecht durer 
burgundy & flanders:
  • flanders derived its wealth from wool & banking
  • flanders controlled by the dukes of Burgundy
  • flemish artists popularized the use of oil paints on wood panels
  • jan van eyck, rogier van der weyden, & others established portraiture as an important art form in 15th century flanders
MATERIALS & TECHNIQUES: TEMPERA & OIL PAINTING
-tempera: consists of egg combined w a wet paste of ground pigment, dried quickly
-oil paints: powdered pigments mixed w linseed oil, dried slowly
-sfumato: smoky effect
-linen canvas became popular in late 16th century

fig. 20-4
merode altarpiece- robert campin
1428, oil on wood
flanders
subject matter: annunciation
objects w symbolic significance (ex. lilies= mary)
red dress of mary= foreshadowing christ's death
hanging pot= mary is the vessel, ready to receive
hairline raised up
jan van eyck:
  • court painter to the duke of burgundy
  • master technician of oil painting
  • iconic precursor to fame & the artist (first to sign name)
  • painter of religious altarpieces & secular portraits 
MATERIALS & TECHNIQUES: FRAMED PAINTINGS
-frames: conceptual & visual functions
-could integrate big paintings w surroundings
-could reinforce illusionistic nature of painting
-could distance view from "otherworldly" scenes by calling attention to separation of image & viewer

fig. 20-8
the man in a red turban- jan van eyck
oil painting, 1433
first known western portrait where sitter looks directly at viewer

fig. 20-5
ghent altarpiece (closed)- jan van eyck
1432, oil on wood

fig. 20-6 
ghent altarpiece (opened)- jan van eyck
1432
top left & right- adam & eve
center bottom- christ= sacrificial lamb
complementary colors-> excitement/interest
foreground, mid., background
fig. 20-7 
giovanni arnolfini & his wife- jan van eyck
1434, oil painting on wood
fur lining= wealth
dog= loyalty & fidelity
signature: "jan van eyck was here"

fig. 20-8A
portrait of a lady- van der weyden
ca. 1460

fig. 20-9
deposition- rogier van der weyden
1435, oil on wood
serpentine "S" shape body= snake= satan
elongated body
bright colors, dark shadows, more modern day clothing
skull- memento mori
ART & SOCIETY: THE ARTIST'S PROFESSION IN FLANDERS
-guilds controlled artistic production in flanders (same in italy)
-guilds secured adequate payments for artists' labor
-women had fewer opportunities than men to become artists (social & moral constraints)
-caterina van hemessen (flemish woman artist): received tutoring from father (professional artist)

france:
  • the Limburg brothers expanded illusionistic capabilities of manuscript illumination in the Book of Hours
  • french court art owes a debt to flemish painting in style & technique as well as in the integration of sacred & secular themes
holy roman empire:
  • the late gothic style remained popular in 15th century germany for cards wood retables
  • major german innovation: printing press--> books w woodcut illustrations
  • earliest masters of engraving

PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS: HOW TO ILLUSTRATE PRINTED BOOKS
-invention of moveable type in 15th century 
-print: an artwork on paper, usually produced in multiple impressions
-edition: set of prints an artist creates from a single print
-woodcut solved problem of illustrating new printed books-> demise of manuscript illuminator

PRINTMAKING TECHNIQUES:
-relief: carving design into a surface, usually soft wood. images are created in reverse- subtractive
-intaglio: artist incises (cuts) lines on a metal plate (replaces wooden blocks)-> mass production
-tool: burin/stylus
-etching: acid bath eats into exposed parts of plate
saint anthony tormented by demons- martin schongauer
1490, intaglio-engraving

fig. I-9
four horsemen of the apocalypse- albrecht durer
1498, relief- woodcut
mouth of hell opening up
souls being weighed
attention to detail

Thursday, February 2, 2017

intro notes | art history

art history:
-requires knowledge of the historical context of an artwork
-central aim: determine original context of artworks
-can shed light on the peoples who made the art & on the times of their creation
-art historians study visual & tangible objects that humans make/build
-what unique set of circumstances gave rise to specific artworks for specific places?
-works can be:
  • architecture
  • sculpture
  • pictorial acts (painting, drawing, printmaking, photography)
  • craft arts (ceramics, metalwork, textiles, jewelry)
questions art historians ask:
-how old is it?
  • chronology: determine age to find historical context
  • physical evidence: (types of materials) can indicate age 
  • terminus post quem: "point after which"- earliest date possible
  • terminus ante quem: "point before which"- latest date possible
  • documentary evidence: when a dated written document mentions the work
  • internal evidence: identifiable person/clothing/hairstyle/etc. 
  • stylistic evidence: analysis of an artist's distinctive manner of producing an object
-what is its style?
  • period style: characteristics of a specific era/span of years w/in a distinct culture
  • regional style: variations in style tied to geography
  • provenance: place of origin
  • personal style: distinctive manner of individual artists 
-what is its subject?
  • categories/themes in art:
history:
-history
-mythology
-allegory: literature w moral
-sacred: religion
human figure
living animal
portrait
landscape
still life: arranged objects
genre: scene of everyday life
vedute: urban view
  • iconography: "writing of images," study of content & symbols in artwork
  • attributes: figure identifiers, SUBJECTIVE
example: 
St. Luke: ox
St. Matthew: winged man
St. Mark: lion
St. John: eagle
  • personifications: abstract ideas codified in human form
-who made it?
  • if an artwork isn't signed, art historians can attribute it to an artist
  • base attributions on internal evidence
  • connoisseur: expert in assigning artworks to "the hand" of one artist
  • school: group of artists that work in the same style at the same time & place
-who paid for it?
  • patrons: those who pay artists to make individual works/employed them on a continuing basis
  • patrons often get to say how artists will represent the subject
  • corona civica: civic crown 
words artists used- formal analysis
-form & composition
  • form: object's shape/structure
  • composition: how artist composes/organizes forms in artwork
-material & technique
  • medium
  • artists shape materials (pigment, clay, gold, marble, etc.) w tools (pens, brushes, chisels, etc.)
  • technique: processes that artists employ & distinctive, personal ways they handle materials
-proportion & scale:
  • proportion: size relationships btwn parts of people, buildings, objects
  • canons: systems of "correct"/"ideal" proportions
  • modules: basic unit of measure
  • hierarchy of scale: enlarging of elements considered most important
-line: a path of a point moving in space/on a plane
  • diagonal
  • vertical
  • horizontal
  • curvilinear
  • serpentine
-space: bounded or boundless "container" of objects
  • mass: bulk/density/weight of matter in space
  • volume: space that mass organizes/divides/encloses 
  • 2-D: depicted 3D space on 2D surface (illusionistic)
  • 3-D: real space occupied by artwork
  • perspective: create illusion of depth or space on 2D surface
linear: convergence of diagonal lines
foreshortening: representing something at angles to the picture plane, illusion that one part of subject is further away than other part 
  • atmospheric 
  • implied
-light:
  • ambient (outside light on a cloudy/normal day)
  • direct (spotlighting)
  • ideal
  • transcendent (refers to religious)
  • chiaroscuro (articulation from light to dark)
-color: revealed by light
  • additive light: natural/sunlight 
  • subtractive light: reflected from pigments & objects
  • hue: property giving a color its name
  • value: variables in color 
  • tonality: degree of lightness or darkness
  • intensity: purity of a color
  • saturation: brightness or dullness
  • primary triad (red, blue, yellow)
  • secondary triad (orange, green, purple)
  • tertiary triad
  • cool palette (blue, green, purple)
  • warm palette (yellow, red, orange)
  • complementary (opposite colors on color wheel)
-texture: quality of a surface
  • true texture: tactile, can feel w touch
  • represented texture: depicted as having texture
-pattern
-time
-motion
  • symmetry
  • asymmetry
  • relieved (approximate symmetry)
  • radial
-emphasis: place/point of most importance
  • focal point: bullseye spot in the composition
-repetition: effect of multiplication to create emphasis
  • rhythm: cadence or sequence of form in a composition
-unity: style or motif unique to a body of work
-variety: mixture of components to create visual dynamism 

architectural drawings:
  • plan: map of a floor/placement of a structure's masses
  • section: a vertical plan
  • lateral sections: slice across structure's width
  • longitudinal sections: cut through building's length
  • elevation drawing: head-on view of external/internal wall
  • cutaway: combines in a single drawing an exterior w interior view of part of a building
carving & casting:
  • carving: subtractive, reduction of original mass/block
  • casting: fluid substance put inside a mold (hollow form for shaping)
  • relief sculpture: subjects project from the background but still remain part of it 
fig. I-9
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse- Albrecht Durer
ca. 1498, woodcut
representations of death, famine, war, pestilence

fig. I-16
unfinished statue- Michelangelo Buonarroti
1527-1528, marble

ch. 14 | late gothic art in italy


late medieval italy

fig. 14-1

territorial divisions:
-duchy
-republic
-kingdom
  • rome, orvieto, assisi, etc. = lots of religious artwork
  • as you move away, more secular & diverse
altarpiece configurations:
-diptych
-triptych
-polyptych
centers of urban development:
-milan
-florence
-siena
-venice
-rome
-urbino
key artists:
-nicola pisano: sculptor of relief panels
-cimabue
-giotto: "first renaissance painter," pursued naturalistic approach
-duccio: master of sienese school of painting
-paolo veneziano
-simone martini
-ambrogio lorenzetti
-andrea pisano
  • oculus= "eye of God"
_______________________________________________________________
duecento (13th century)

  • diversity of style
  • some artists worked in the maniera greca (italo-byzantine style), some in the mode of gothic france, & others in the newly revived classical naturalistic tradition
fig. 14-3
annunciation, nativity, & adoration of the shephards- nicola pisano [nicholas the pisan]
relief panel on baptistry pulpit/pisa/1259-1260
subject matter: annunciation (synoptic narrative)
background info: illiteracy rates were high -> relief summarizes importance of mary

ART & SOCIETY: ITALIAN ARTISTS' NAMES
-many individuals were known by their place of birth or adopted hometown
-format of names could also be changed whenever
________________________________________________________________
FLASHBACK: GRECO-ROMAN PROTOTYPES
kalos thanatos (a beautiful death?)/ sarcophagus/ kline (recline)/ meander motif/ register/ arcade
  • meander motif: represents new life
  • register: horizontal band
__________________________________________________________________

FLASHBACK: BYZANTINE ERA PROTOTYPES
-refers to 4th century societal shift in Rome: Constantine declared Christianity as official religion
-ancient greek city of Byzantium becomes new capital of Christendom- renamed Constantinople
-style: figurative art- austere & conservative

byzantine characteristics:
  • rigid body pose
  • emphatic verticality (columnar body)
  • multiple striations (registers)
  • stoic stare
  • almond eyes
  • elongated nose/fingers
  • colors: blue & gold (heavenly realm/unique mandate)
  • flatness of forms
  • body concealment
_________________________________________________________________________

RELIGION & MYTHOLOGY:
-italians resented the avignon papacy
-conflict btwn french & italians-> election of 2 popes (1378)-> Great Schism
-increase in monastic orders-> constant religious presence
-mendicants (begging friars): renounced worldly goods, preached to large urban crowds
-rivalry btwn franciscans & dominicans
-confraternities: organizations of laypersons who dedicated themselves to strict religious observance

fig. 14-5
Saint Francis Altarpiece- Bonaventura Berlinghieri
Italy, 1235, tempera on wood
Italo-Byzantine style/maniera greca
highlights increasingly prominent role of religious orders (Great Schism)

madonna enthroned w angels- cimabue
altarpiece: 12x7
circa 1280
relience on byzantine models
gold embellishments enhance 3-dimensionality of drapery
hierarchic scale
throne: strength, balance, stability
angels stacked vertically, mary at larger scale

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Trecento (14th century)

the Black death (europe, circa 1347-51)
-origin: china -> trade ships at port of sicily -> flea infested rodents
-physical ramifications: inflammation of lymph nodes (groin & armpits), black pus, rapid contagion
-social effect: fear, ostracization, isolationism, irrational behavior
-psychological effect: introversion, "memento mori" (remember, you too will die)
-effect on faith/religion: intervention of omnipotent being- mass exodus, skepticism
-long-term effect: open to humanism
-stats: 60% loss of population
  • renaissance= rebirth of art & culture
  • humanism: human values & interests distinct from religion's otherworldly values
  • scholars & artists became increasingly concerned w the natural world
fig. 14-8
madonna enthroned- giotto de bondone
1305-1310
tempera & gold leaf on wood
high altar
ognissanti, florence
revival of classical naturalism
figures have more dimension
angels overlapping-> more believable

  • stigmata: wounds of Christ
  • iconography: study of symbols & representations of subject matter
Christian iconography:
  • annunciation: white lilies, mary, gabriel
  • nativity: baby Christ, mary, joseph
  • pedagogy: teachings of Christ/parables
  • miracles
  • passion: crucifixion, Resurrection
  • pentecost: after he comes back
MATERIALS & TECHNIQUES: FRESCO PAINTING
-mural painting technique
-buon fresco: (true fresco) apply permanent limeproof pigment, diluted in water, on fresh lime plaster
-one of the most durable painting techniques 
-fresco secco: (dry fresco) painting on dried lime plaster, plaster wall does not absorb pigments 

fig. 14-9
lamentation- giotto
subject matter: scenes from the life of Christ
date: 1305
medium: painting
technique: buon fresco
venue: arena chapel- family estate- padua, republic of venice
patron: enrico scrovegni
period: late gothic
 angels grieving, foreshortening
dead tree- tree of knowledge (adam & eve)
strong directional line (rock) pointing to Christ, separation of heaven & earth
slit eyes & big chins

virgin & child enthroned w saints- duccio
sienese conservatism
altarpiece, siena cathedral
1308-1311
tempera paint & gold leaf on wood panel
formality & symmetry derived from byzantine painting
but less rigidity & frontality, softened drapery, individualized faces
THE PATRON'S VOICE:
-guilds: associates of master craftspeople, apprentices, & tradespeople
-monastic orders, confraternities, & the Vatican were major art patrons
-a patron's needs/wishes were crucial

ART & SOCIETY: ARTISTIC TRAINING IN RENAISSANCE ITALY
-aspiring artists started training at 7-15 yrs old
-fathers would negotiate an arrangement w a master artist
-boys served as apprentices 
-after completing apprenticeships, artists entered appropriate guilds 
-new guild-certified artists served as assistants to master artists until established reputations

International Gothic:
  • Gothic 13th & 14th cent.: images of city of God which they were privileged to build on earth
  • byzantine characteristics w excessive decorative flourishes
-pointed arches
-lux nova
-rose windows
-tri foria
-light
-airy
-vertical
-soaring
-unified
-unbroken space
-exterior buttresses
-ribbed groin vaults, bright
-richly decorated w sculpture
madonna & child- paolo veneziano
1340, oil

fig. 14-14
annunciation- simone martini
1333
over the top- gold leaf & big wings
mary's body language= reacting
dialogue in latin
multiple strands of lilies

SECULAR WORLD VIEW:
fig. 14-17
peaceful city (siena)- lorenzetti brothers
frescoes in situ- palazzo publico, siena
circa 1338
buildings are isometric
prosperity/growth
frescoes in situ

fig. 14-18
peaceful country- lorenzetti brothers
counterpart of peaceful city
frescoes in situ- palazzo publico, siena

fig. 14-19
santa maria del fiore- arnolfo di cambio & others
the duomo (florence cathedral) & adjacent baptistry
first dome structure in thousands of years
marble veneer on facing, carries tuscan romanesque architectural tradition
mediterranean tile roofs
mixture of gothic & romanesque
campanile

baptistry doors- andrea pisano
iconography: life of john the baptist (christian pedagogy)
medium: sculpture
technique: bronze w  gold gild
culture: florence
period: late gothic/1330-1336
quatrefoil design- 4 points

fig. 14-23
palace of the doge
republic of venice
1340-1438
hybrid: late gothic (christian) & islamic
gothic arch & ogee arch (double-curving lines)
arcade
diamond motif (islam)
marble sheath (veneer)