Saturday, December 10, 2016

intro to a&p final exam review

Chapter 1:

  • anatomy: science of structure & relationship among structures
  • physiology: science of body functions
  • homeostasis: stable conditions inside the body 
  • homeostatic mechanisms: 
  1. nervous system: (fast response) sends messages by nerve impulses when it detects changes 
  2. endocrine system: (slow response) secretes hormones into blood when it detects changes 
directional terms:
  • medial: toward midline
  • lateral: away from midline
  • superior: toward head
  • inferior: away from head 
  • proximal: toward point of attachment of limb
  • distal: away from point of attachment of limb
  • superficial: toward surface of body
  • deep: away from surface of body 
planes:
  • sagittal: divides into left & right
-midsagittal: passes through midline, divides into equal left & right
-parasagittal: divides into unequal left & right 
  • frontal/coronal: divides into anterior/front & posterior/back
  • transverse/cross-sectional/horizontal: divides into superior/upper & inferior/lower
  • oblique: passes through at an angle 
body cavities: spaces w/in body that contain/protect/separate/support internal organs



Chapter 2:

  • atoms: building blocks of elements
  • 4 big elements (that make up 96% of all living matter): 
  1. hydrogen
  2. oxygen
  3. nitrogen
  4. carbon
  • matter is made of chemical elements which are substances that cannot be broken down into any simpler units by chemical means & retain same chemical properties
basic particles:
  1. protons: positively charged 
  2. electrons: negatively charged 
  3. neutrons: uncharged
  • atomic number: number of protons in an atom
  • mass number: number of protons + neutrons in an atom
  • isotopes: atoms of the same element w same amount of protons & electrons, but different number of neutrons
  • acids: substance that breaks apart or dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions (H+) when it dissolves in water 
  • bases: dissociates into one or more hydroxide ions (OH-) or absorbs one or more H+ when dissolved in water 
  • buffers: prevent rapid, drastic changes in pH of body fluid by converting strong acids & bases into weak ones 
compounds:
  • ion: an atom that gives up or gains electrons to conform to the octet rule (get 8 valence electrons)
  • ionic bond: electrical attraction (btwn positively & negatively charged ions) holding ions together
  • covalent bond: shared electron pair btwn 2 atoms 
  • polar molecules: one atom attracts electrons more strongly than the other --> one end of molecule has partial negative charge & other end has partial positive charge
  • non-polar molecules: share valence electrons equally btwn atoms 

Chapter 3:

cell parts:



organelle: membrane-bound structure w/in a cell that carries out specific functions
cytoplasm: area btwn membrane & nucleus; contains organelles & cytosol (fluid inside)
nucleus: houses genetic material
functions:
  1. controls cellular structure
  2. directs cellular activities
  3. produces ribosomes in nucleoli
plasma membrane: cell's gatekeeper; semi-permeable lipid bilayer
functions: 
  1. barrier separating inside & outside of cell
  2. controls flow of substances into & out of cell
  3. helps identify the cell to other cells 
  4. participates in intercellular signaling
centrosomes: consists of centriole pairs
function:
  1. plays a role in cell division
ribosomes: made of RNA & proteins 
functions:
  1. make new proteins
smooth endoplasmic reticulum: doesn't have ribosomes 
functions:
  1. synthesizes fatty acids & steriods
  2. inactivates/detoxifies drugs & harmful substances
  3. stores & releases calcium ions  
rough endoplasmic reticulum: contains ribosomes on walls 
function:
  1. make proteins 
golgi complex: array of flat membrane sacs 
functions:
  1. modifies/sorts/packages/transport proteins received from rough ER
  2. transfer proteins to their destinations 
mitochondria: folded inner membrane surrounded by smooth outer membrane 
functions:
  1. generates ATP/energy 
membranes: transport substances

Chapter 4:

layers of skin:

papillary region: upper part of dermis- provides epidermis w nutrients, produces keratincoytes, regulates temperature
reticular region: lower part of dermis- strengthens skin, provides elasticity, contains hair follicles & glands

Meissner's (a.k.a. tactile) corpsucle: touch receptor
Pacinian (a.k.a. lamellated) corpsucle: pressure receptor
arrector pili muscles: pulls hairs into upright position

skin color is caused by pigments
  • melanin: dark black/brown/yellow pigment 
  • hemoglobin: red pigment 
  • carotene: yellow/orange pigment
hair:
parts:
  • shaft: above skin surface
  • root: below surface 
  • hair follicle: surrounds the root 
  • hair root plexuses: nerve endings that surround hair follicles 
nail:
dividing cells of a nail are located in nail matrix
burns:
1st degree: damages epidermis; redness, mild pain
2nd degree: damages epidermis & superficial part of dermis; blisters, edema
3rd degree: damages epidermis & dermis; marble-white to black color 
4th degree: damages epidermis, dermis, & additional soft tissue underlying the skin

rule of nines: used to estimate the surface area affected by burns in an adult


Chapter 5:

parts of a long bone:
  • diaphysis: middle of long bone, hollow
has a hollow chamber called medullary cavity 
contains yellow marrow which stores fat 
  • epiphysis: end of long bone, solid
contains red marrow which produces red blood cells
covered by articular cartilage
  • periosteum: tough membrane covering the bone 

axial skeleton: 80 bones

ribs:

appendicular skeleton: 126 bones

bones of the lower limb:
  • femur:
  • knee:
  • fibula & tibia:
  • foot:

spinal curvatures:

Chapter 6:

  • skeletal muscle tissue is attached to the bones
-striated, voluntary: nerve signals initiate the contraction of skeletal muscle
-produces body movements
-stabilizes the skeleton
-produces heat/maintains body temperature
  • cardiac muscle tissue is found only in the heart
-striated, intercalated discs, involuntary 
-makes up walls of heart
-generates force to pump blood
  • smooth muscle tissue is found in most body organs
-not striated, involuntary 
-forms walls of hollow organs 
-stores and moves substances w/in body
-regulates organ volume


Chapter 7:

  • central nervous system (CNS)composed of brain & spinal cord
-processes info/sensory data
-makes decisions/initiates response
  • peripheral nervous system (PNS)consists of nervous tissue structures that lie outside the brain & spinal cord
-senses changes in environment
-sends info to CNS
-receives info from CNS

sensory (afferent) nervous system:
-somatosensory receptors
-special sense receptors
-autonomic sensory receptors 

motor (efferent) nervous system:
  • somatic nervous system: voluntary, controls skeletal muscles, 1 motor neuron
  • autonomic nervous system: involuntary, controls smooth/cardiac/glands, 2 motor neurons
        o sympathetic: fight or flight
-uses ACh as preganglionic neurotransmitter 
-epinephrine or norepinephrine as postganglionic neurotransmitter
-increases heart rate/blood pressure --> delivers oxygen & nutrients to working muscles
-increases rate of breathing --> bring more oxygen into body
-breaks down glycogen & releases glucose --> energy for working muscles
-inhibits digestion --> keeps blood from being diverted from muscles

        o parasympathetic: rest & repair/rest & digest
-uses ACh as pre/postganglionic neurotransmitter
-stimulation of digestive tract --> increased digestion
-vasoconstriction decreases blood flow --> shunts it toward digestive tract
-relaxes bladder & anal muscles --> increased urination & defecation

neurons:


Chapter 9:

  • endocrine system: system of glands that regulate body functions through secretion of chemical messagers (hormones); maintains day-to-day homeostasis
  • endocrine glands: secrete a chemical signal directly into the bloodstream
  • hormone: chemical secreted into bloodstream that acts on target cells 
2 types of hormones:
       1. steroid: dissolves in fats or lipids; go directly into the target cell; take longer to act, longer-lasting effects
       2. nonsteroid: dissolves in water; bind to receptors on target cell membrane; act faster, effects are more short-lived 

Chapter 10:

components of blood:
plasma: liquid portion of blood
formed elements: consist of many types of blood cells
erythrocytes= RBCs
leukocytes= WBCs
formed elements: 
  • RBCs- deliver oxygen
  • WBCs- fight foreign bodies
  • platelets- clot
hemostasis helps minimize blood loss
-blood clotting/coagulation
thrombus: small clot will form in an unbroken vessel & dissolve spontaneously 
embolus: blood clot that moves & can lodge in various places 
hemophilia: a medical condition in which the ability of the blood to clot is severely reduced, causing the sufferer to bleed severely from even a slight injury

matching the ABO group allows safe transfusions:
  • antigens: substance that has the ability to provoke an immune response
  • antibodies: proteins in the blood that can bind to specific antigens
  • agglutination: RBCs clump together when same antigen & antibody come in contact
  • hemolysis: RBSs burst 
blood types:

Chapter 11:

  • pulmonary circulation: btwn heart & lungs
  • systemic circulation: btwn heart & body 


parts of the heart:
atrium: collect blood from circulation
ventricle: pump that delivers blood to the circulation
valves: keep the blood flowing the right direction through the heart
atrioventricular valves: tricuspid (right side) & bicuspid/mitral (left side)
semilunar valves: pulmonic (right side) & aortic (left side)
arteries: blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
veins: blood vessels that convey blood from tissues back to the heart


Chapter 12:

  • lymph: when interstitial fluid enters lymphatic vessels; drained by lymphatic or thoracic duct; eventually becomes part of the blood plasma again 

  • primary lymphatic organs: (sites where stem cells divide & develop into B & T cells)
-red bone marrow: T & B cells
-thymus: T cells

major immune cells:
  1. T-cells= T lymphocytes (made in red bone marrow & matures in thymus)
  2. B-cells = B lymphocytes (made & mature in red bone marrow)
  • secondary lymphatic organs: (sites where most immune responses occur)
-tonsils: (lymphatic nodules) protect against inhaled or ingested foreign substances
-spleen: largest lymphatic organ; destroys pathogens & removes worn-out blood cells; filters blood & stores blood cells
-lymphatic capillaries: drain interstitial spaces of excess fluid
-lymphatic vessels: carry lymph away from tissues
-thoracic & right lymphatic ducts: receive lymph from lymphatic vessels & empty into the junction btwn jugular & subclavian veins
-lymph nodes: filter lymph to remove foreign substances

flow of lymph:

Chapter 13:





alveolus: air sac in the lungs 
lung cancer:
  • smoking can damage lung tissue
  • substances in cigarette smoke stimulate uncontrolled cellular growth in the lungs 
  • lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S.

Chapter 14:

gastrointestinal (GI) tract: (alimentary canal) long, continuous tube; extends from mouth to anus; includes mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestines

layers of the GI tract:


small intestines:

the large intestine: absorbs water & eliminates waste

mouth:
we have 32 teeth

dietary sources of the major nutrients:
  • nutrients includes carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water, minerals, & vitamins 
  • essential nutrients: (amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals) specific substances that your body cannot make on its own in sufficient quantities to meet its needs
  • glucose--> carbohydrates 
  • amino acids--> proteins
  • fatty acids--> lipids
  • minerals: inorganic elements, found in bones & teeth
  • vitamins: organic nutrients 
-fat-soluble: vitamins A, D, E, K; absorbed from digestive tract; excess can be stored in cells
-water-soluble: vitamins B, C; dissolved in body fluids; excess is excreted in urine
  • anabolic reactions (synthesis reactions): molecules combine 
  • catabolic reactions (decomposition reactions): molecules are broken down 

Chapter 15:

nephrons: functional units; each nephron extends from the cortex to the medulla


  • micturition/void: act of expelling urine from urinary bladder
what a health provider sees:
  • kidney diseases such as nephritis (inflammation of kidneys), glomerulonephritis (inflammation of glomeruli) can lead to renal failure 
  • kidneys fail --> metabolic wastes build up, normal blood composition goes awry 
  • dialysis: removal of waste products from blood by diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane (treatment for renal failure); must be performed about 6-12 hrs a week 
-hemodialysis: uses a machine, blood is dialyzed through artificial membrane 
-peritoneal dialysis: uses peritoneum as dialyzing membrane to filter blood 
  • dialysis = temporary solution
  • kidney transplant = only permanent treatment

Chapter 16:

male reproductive organs:


female reproductive organs:

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