Monday, December 5, 2016

ch. 16 | the reproductive systems

  • gonads: (ovaries & testes) produce gametes & secretes hormones 
functions of male reproductive system:
  1. testes produce sperm & the male sex hormone testosterone
  2. ducts transport/store/assist in maturation of sperm
  3. accessory sex glands secrete most of the liquid portion of semen
  4. penis contains the urethra, a passageway for ejaculation of semen & excretion of urine 
male reproductive organs:
  • foreskin (prepuce) is removed during circumcision
  • the spongey (penile) region of the urethra fills with blood, causing an erection 
  • sperm production begins during puberty & continues throughout life
  • meiosis: cell division that occurs during production of gametes which receive a set of 23 chromosomes each
structure of sperm:

path of sperm through reproductive tract:

  1. ovaries produce secondary oocytes & hormones (estrogens, inhibin, relaxin, etc.)
  2. uterine tubes transport secondary oocyte to uterus & fertilization usually occurs here
  3. uterus is site of implantation of fertilized ovum, development of the fetus, & labor
  4. vagina receives the penis during sex & is a passageway for childbirth
  5. mammary glands synthesize, secrete, & eject milk for nourishment of the newborn  
female reproductive organs:
  • labia: hair-free fold of tissue next to the urethral & vaginal orifice 
  • there is no tube that sends ovulated oocytes from the ovary directly into the uterine tube
anatomy of breasts:
  • lactation: secretion & ejection of milk by the mammary glands
  • fertilization must occur while both the egg & sperm are still viable 
  • pregnancy lasts from fertilization to delivery (38 weeks)
  • due date is calculated from the 1st day of mother's last menstrual period which occurred 2 weeks prior to fertilization
  • embryonic period: fertilization-8 weeks
  • fetal period: 9 weeks-birth
  • zygote: single cell resulting from the union of make & female gametes; fertilized ovum; contains 46 chromosomes (23 from ovum & 23 from sperm)
  • labor: process of giving birth in which a fetus is expelled from the uterus through the vagina
  • parturition: act of giving birth to young; childbirth/delivery 
  • breech position: heads up or sideways orientation 
stages of labor:
  • puberty: time of life during which the secondary sex characteristics begin to appear & the capability for sexual reproduction is possible; usually btwn ages 10-17
  • menopause: termination of the menstrual cycle

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