Monday, December 5, 2016

ch. 15 | the urinary system & fluid, electrolyte, & acid-base balance


  • tubule & duct cells return about 99% of the filtered water & many useful solutes to the blood 
  • only 1% of the filtered water actually leaves the body in urine 
glomerulus: tangled capillary network

nephrons: function units; each nephron extends from the cortex to the medulla
  • urinary bladder: temporary storage area
  • micturition/void: act of expelling urine from urinary bladder
  • incontinence: inability to retain urine, semen, or feces through loss of sphincter control
  • intracellular fluid: fluid w/in cells- 2/3rds of body fuid
  • extracellular fluid: fluid outside cells- 1/3rd of body fluid
  • dehydration: water loss is greater than water gain
  • water levels also depend on changes in NaCl levels
  • buffers help to maintain pH levels w/in a narrow range: 7.35-7.45
  • acidosis: condition in which blood pH is below 7.35
  • alkalosis: condition in which blood pH is higher than 7.45

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