Saturday, December 31, 2016

2017 goals

the clock has struck midnight- it's now 2017! happy new years! have you decided on your resolutions? do you believe in resolutions? are you going to keep your resolutions?

i've always thought that resolutions were kind of lame & unrealistic bc no one ever really keeps them so instead, i set goals for myself. these aren't exactly things that i want to achieve in 2017 but things that i want to work on/work towards.
  1. be healthier- eat a little bit better, drink A LOT more water (pretty self explanatory)
  2. draw more- just doodle/sketch something once a day (i hardly draw anymore but i'm gonna need to work on that if i wanna major in art, yikes)
  3. spend less time on social media- go find something better to do (all i do is go back & forth on apps when i'm bored, even if there's nothing new, i need to stop)
  4. live my best life (discussed in my last blog post)
  5. be the best version of myself (i'm not satisfied w the person i am but i'll get there)
  6. connect more- reach out to people, stop being so afraid (& stop shutting people out)
  7. break out of my shell- i need to stop being shy & awkward  (so many missed opportunities)
  8. put myself first- all i do is put others first & try to make them happy (it's time to focus on me)
  9. stop stressing myself out- not everything is worth stressing out about (i stress so much, i'm my own stressor)
these are my top goals for the new year & i'm posting them bc people say that written goals are more effective (technicially this isn't written but i'll copy it down in a notebook, so same thing). i'm also posting it bc i think i need people to see my goals, know that i want to change, & hold me to it- even call me out if necessary. hopefully i'll be able to change some things in my life in order to meet these goals. i don't have to become a health freak, draw 24/7, delete social media, become an extrovert, etc.- as long as i get closer to my goals. baby steps are okay. progress is progress no matter how small.

reminders for living your life in 2017

we all have those things that we know we should do but we don't do it, or the advice that we should take but we don't. why don't we? why don't we do the things that will help us live our best lives? i'm definitely guilty of this & maybe w the start of the new year, i can push myself to do these things that i know i should do. i want to live my best life, everyone does. here are so reminders (that i found on tumblr) on how you & i can (this list is for me but it can really be for anyone) live our best lives in 2017: 
  • don’t let shyness overcome new opportunities
  • put your needs first- it isn't a problem for those who truly care about you
  • live fearlessly
  • pursue joy
  • cut toxic people out- you'll feel like poop at first, but later you will feel relief & freedom.
  • calm down before making decisions in anger
  • stop trying to please everyone- it's impossible
  • drink more water
  • stop caring so much about what people will think & say
  • don’t knock it ‘til you try it
  • it’s never too late for an apology
  • be cool to younger kids- reputations are built over a lifetime
  • be a good listener- don’t just wait for your turn to talk
  • make the little things count
  • do what helps you boost your confidence & self-esteem
  • stop procrastinating- no matter how unmotivated you are
  • be honest, be honorable, be kind
  • allow yourself the time to acknowledge how tired you are- allow yourself room to be real
  • be so comfortable with yourself that you’re unafraid to do things alone
  • smile & laugh more- there’s always a reason to smile
  • choose to love- yourself, others, & the world around you 
  • stop giving people the power to treat you like you mean nothing
  • it’s okay to cut off people from your life- your well being matters more than anyone’s
  • forgive & let go- grudges make your heart ache & drain your energy
  • don’t overthink every single thing
  • appreciate & embrace what you have
  • make sure you’re ready to face consequences before you make impulsive decisions
  • do not give so much of yourself to people who will not do the same for you
  • strength isn't about succeeding or failing- it’s the fact you battled on despite your struggle
there are probably so many other ways that we can improve our lives too, but the goal is to be so busy living a good life so that i don't have the time to find them all. the countdown until 2017 begins:

Thursday, December 29, 2016

wrapping up 2016- good? bad? worst year???

the year is coming to a close & wow, it was a doozy. everyone is calling 2016 "the worst year" & i'll admit, a lot of bad things did happen- just to name a few:
  • the death of george michael
  • the mess that was the presidential election
  • the death of christina grimmie
  • the orlando shooting
  • the death of alan rickman
  • zika
  • the death of carrie fisher
there were really a lot of deaths recently, & not only of celebrities but my grandfather also. however, we can't just think about the bad, we have to focus on the positives: 
  • the breakthrough in research for ASL
  • finding dory
  • NASA got into jupiter's orbit
  • the hilariousness that is deadpool
  • harriet tubman might/is supposed to replace andrew jackson on the $20 bill
  • zootopia
  • the manatee population is no long endangered
ofc my lists are short since i can't possibly know every good & bad thing that happened in the world but who's to say whether the bad outweighed the good or vice versa? all i know is that we have gotten through a tough year & we're headed into a new one. let's try to stay optimistic, even w all of the bad that has happened. i can't wait to see all of the good that 2017 has in store. 

Friday, December 16, 2016

MD & R.I.P 12/15/16

the countdown until MD starts again! 

earlier this year, in the summer, i already went to MD. but due to my grandpa's poor health, we decided to go again in the winter to visit him. we were planning to go on Christmas morning but unfortunately, his health only got worse. we re-booked to an earlier today, Dec. 17th (today, technically) but he passed away 2 days before the day we were supposed to go back.

this is very saddening but i am still excited to go to MD. my family needs to all be together to support each other during this sad time & i can't wait to see them. i truly appreciate all the prayers for my grandpa from my friends & family. all we can do is try to remember that he is in a better place now.

on a lighter note, since this semester & finals are over, i will definitely be vlogging again, especially since i'm going to MD so watch out for new content!

thank you for all the love & support <3

Saturday, December 10, 2016

intro to a&p final exam review

Chapter 1:

  • anatomy: science of structure & relationship among structures
  • physiology: science of body functions
  • homeostasis: stable conditions inside the body 
  • homeostatic mechanisms: 
  1. nervous system: (fast response) sends messages by nerve impulses when it detects changes 
  2. endocrine system: (slow response) secretes hormones into blood when it detects changes 
directional terms:
  • medial: toward midline
  • lateral: away from midline
  • superior: toward head
  • inferior: away from head 
  • proximal: toward point of attachment of limb
  • distal: away from point of attachment of limb
  • superficial: toward surface of body
  • deep: away from surface of body 
  • sagittal: divides into left & right
-midsagittal: passes through midline, divides into equal left & right
-parasagittal: divides into unequal left & right 
  • frontal/coronal: divides into anterior/front & posterior/back
  • transverse/cross-sectional/horizontal: divides into superior/upper & inferior/lower
  • oblique: passes through at an angle 
body cavities: spaces w/in body that contain/protect/separate/support internal organs

Chapter 2:

  • atoms: building blocks of elements
  • 4 big elements (that make up 96% of all living matter): 
  1. hydrogen
  2. oxygen
  3. nitrogen
  4. carbon
  • matter is made of chemical elements which are substances that cannot be broken down into any simpler units by chemical means & retain same chemical properties
basic particles:
  1. protons: positively charged 
  2. electrons: negatively charged 
  3. neutrons: uncharged
  • atomic number: number of protons in an atom
  • mass number: number of protons + neutrons in an atom
  • isotopes: atoms of the same element w same amount of protons & electrons, but different number of neutrons
  • acids: substance that breaks apart or dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions (H+) when it dissolves in water 
  • bases: dissociates into one or more hydroxide ions (OH-) or absorbs one or more H+ when dissolved in water 
  • buffers: prevent rapid, drastic changes in pH of body fluid by converting strong acids & bases into weak ones 
  • ion: an atom that gives up or gains electrons to conform to the octet rule (get 8 valence electrons)
  • ionic bond: electrical attraction (btwn positively & negatively charged ions) holding ions together
  • covalent bond: shared electron pair btwn 2 atoms 
  • polar molecules: one atom attracts electrons more strongly than the other --> one end of molecule has partial negative charge & other end has partial positive charge
  • non-polar molecules: share valence electrons equally btwn atoms 

Chapter 3:

cell parts:

organelle: membrane-bound structure w/in a cell that carries out specific functions
cytoplasm: area btwn membrane & nucleus; contains organelles & cytosol (fluid inside)
nucleus: houses genetic material
  1. controls cellular structure
  2. directs cellular activities
  3. produces ribosomes in nucleoli
plasma membrane: cell's gatekeeper; semi-permeable lipid bilayer
  1. barrier separating inside & outside of cell
  2. controls flow of substances into & out of cell
  3. helps identify the cell to other cells 
  4. participates in intercellular signaling
centrosomes: consists of centriole pairs
  1. plays a role in cell division
ribosomes: made of RNA & proteins 
  1. make new proteins
smooth endoplasmic reticulum: doesn't have ribosomes 
  1. synthesizes fatty acids & steriods
  2. inactivates/detoxifies drugs & harmful substances
  3. stores & releases calcium ions  
rough endoplasmic reticulum: contains ribosomes on walls 
  1. make proteins 
golgi complex: array of flat membrane sacs 
  1. modifies/sorts/packages/transport proteins received from rough ER
  2. transfer proteins to their destinations 
mitochondria: folded inner membrane surrounded by smooth outer membrane 
  1. generates ATP/energy 
membranes: transport substances

Chapter 4:

layers of skin:

papillary region: upper part of dermis- provides epidermis w nutrients, produces keratincoytes, regulates temperature
reticular region: lower part of dermis- strengthens skin, provides elasticity, contains hair follicles & glands

Meissner's (a.k.a. tactile) corpsucle: touch receptor
Pacinian (a.k.a. lamellated) corpsucle: pressure receptor
arrector pili muscles: pulls hairs into upright position

skin color is caused by pigments
  • melanin: dark black/brown/yellow pigment 
  • hemoglobin: red pigment 
  • carotene: yellow/orange pigment
  • shaft: above skin surface
  • root: below surface 
  • hair follicle: surrounds the root 
  • hair root plexuses: nerve endings that surround hair follicles 
dividing cells of a nail are located in nail matrix
1st degree: damages epidermis; redness, mild pain
2nd degree: damages epidermis & superficial part of dermis; blisters, edema
3rd degree: damages epidermis & dermis; marble-white to black color 
4th degree: damages epidermis, dermis, & additional soft tissue underlying the skin

rule of nines: used to estimate the surface area affected by burns in an adult

Chapter 5:

parts of a long bone:
  • diaphysis: middle of long bone, hollow
has a hollow chamber called medullary cavity 
contains yellow marrow which stores fat 
  • epiphysis: end of long bone, solid
contains red marrow which produces red blood cells
covered by articular cartilage
  • periosteum: tough membrane covering the bone 

axial skeleton: 80 bones


appendicular skeleton: 126 bones

bones of the lower limb:
  • femur:
  • knee:
  • fibula & tibia:
  • foot:

spinal curvatures:

Chapter 6:

  • skeletal muscle tissue is attached to the bones
-striated, voluntary: nerve signals initiate the contraction of skeletal muscle
-produces body movements
-stabilizes the skeleton
-produces heat/maintains body temperature
  • cardiac muscle tissue is found only in the heart
-striated, intercalated discs, involuntary 
-makes up walls of heart
-generates force to pump blood
  • smooth muscle tissue is found in most body organs
-not striated, involuntary 
-forms walls of hollow organs 
-stores and moves substances w/in body
-regulates organ volume

Chapter 7:

  • central nervous system (CNS)composed of brain & spinal cord
-processes info/sensory data
-makes decisions/initiates response
  • peripheral nervous system (PNS)consists of nervous tissue structures that lie outside the brain & spinal cord
-senses changes in environment
-sends info to CNS
-receives info from CNS

sensory (afferent) nervous system:
-somatosensory receptors
-special sense receptors
-autonomic sensory receptors 

motor (efferent) nervous system:
  • somatic nervous system: voluntary, controls skeletal muscles, 1 motor neuron
  • autonomic nervous system: involuntary, controls smooth/cardiac/glands, 2 motor neurons
o sympathetic: fight or flight
-uses ACh as preganglionic neurotransmitter 
-epinephrine or norepinephrine as postganglionic neurotransmitter
-increases heart rate/blood pressure --> delivers oxygen & nutrients to working muscles
-increases rate of breathing --> bring more oxygen into body
-breaks down glycogen & releases glucose --> energy for working muscles
-inhibits digestion --> keeps blood from being diverted from muscles

o parasympathetic: rest & repair/rest & digest
-uses ACh as pre/postganglionic neurotransmitter
-stimulation of digestive tract --> increased digestion
-vasoconstriction decreases blood flow --> shunts it toward digestive tract
-relaxes bladder & anal muscles --> increased urination & defecation


Chapter 9:

  • endocrine system: system of glands that regulate body functions through secretion of chemical messagers (hormones); maintains day-to-day homeostasis
  • endocrine glands: secrete a chemical signal directly into the bloodstream
  • hormone: chemical secreted into bloodstream that acts on target cells 
2 types of hormones:
       1. steroid: dissolves in fats or lipids; go directly into the target cell; take longer to act, longer-lasting effects
       2. nonsteroid: dissolves in water; bind to receptors on target cell membrane; act faster, effects are more short-lived 

Chapter 10:

components of blood:
plasma: liquid portion of blood
formed elements: consist of many types of blood cells
erythrocytes= RBCs
leukocytes= WBCs
formed elements: 
  • RBCs- deliver oxygen
  • WBCs- fight foreign bodies
  • platelets- clot
hemostasis helps minimize blood loss
-blood clotting/coagulation
thrombus: small clot will form in an unbroken vessel & dissolve spontaneously 
embolus: blood clot that moves & can lodge in various places 
hemophilia: a medical condition in which the ability of the blood to clot is severely reduced, causing the sufferer to bleed severely from even a slight injury

matching the ABO group allows safe transfusions:
  • antigens: substance that has the ability to provoke an immune response
  • antibodies: proteins in the blood that can bind to specific antigens
  • agglutination: RBCs clump together when same antigen & antibody come in contact
  • hemolysis: RBSs burst 
blood types:

Chapter 11:

  • pulmonary circulation: btwn heart & lungs
  • systemic circulation: btwn heart & body 

parts of the heart:
atrium: collect blood from circulation
ventricle: pump that delivers blood to the circulation
valves: keep the blood flowing the right direction through the heart
atrioventricular valves: tricuspid (right side) & bicuspid/mitral (left side)
semilunar valves: pulmonic (right side) & aortic (left side)
arteries: blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
veins: blood vessels that convey blood from tissues back to the heart

Chapter 12:

  • lymph: when interstitial fluid enters lymphatic vessels; drained by lymphatic or thoracic duct; eventually becomes part of the blood plasma again 

  • primary lymphatic organs: (sites where stem cells divide & develop into B & T cells)
-red bone marrow: T & B cells
-thymus: T cells

major immune cells:
  1. T-cells= T lymphocytes (made in red bone marrow & matures in thymus)
  2. B-cells = B lymphocytes (made & mature in red bone marrow)
  • secondary lymphatic organs: (sites where most immune responses occur)
-tonsils: (lymphatic nodules) protect against inhaled or ingested foreign substances
-spleen: largest lymphatic organ; destroys pathogens & removes worn-out blood cells; filters blood & stores blood cells
-lymphatic capillaries: drain interstitial spaces of excess fluid
-lymphatic vessels: carry lymph away from tissues
-thoracic & right lymphatic ducts: receive lymph from lymphatic vessels & empty into the junction btwn jugular & subclavian veins
-lymph nodes: filter lymph to remove foreign substances

flow of lymph:

Chapter 13:

alveolus: air sac in the lungs 
lung cancer:
  • smoking can damage lung tissue
  • substances in cigarette smoke stimulate uncontrolled cellular growth in the lungs 
  • lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S.

Chapter 14:

gastrointestinal (GI) tract: (alimentary canal) long, continuous tube; extends from mouth to anus; includes mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestines

layers of the GI tract:

small intestines:

the large intestine: absorbs water & eliminates waste

we have 32 teeth

dietary sources of the major nutrients:
  • nutrients includes carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water, minerals, & vitamins 
  • essential nutrients: (amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals) specific substances that your body cannot make on its own in sufficient quantities to meet its needs
  • glucose--> carbohydrates 
  • amino acids--> proteins
  • fatty acids--> lipids
  • minerals: inorganic elements, found in bones & teeth
  • vitamins: organic nutrients 
-fat-soluble: vitamins A, D, E, K; absorbed from digestive tract; excess can be stored in cells
-water-soluble: vitamins B, C; dissolved in body fluids; excess is excreted in urine
  • anabolic reactions (synthesis reactions): molecules combine 
  • catabolic reactions (decomposition reactions): molecules are broken down 

Chapter 15:

nephrons: functional units; each nephron extends from the cortex to the medulla

  • micturition/void: act of expelling urine from urinary bladder
what a health provider sees:
  • kidney diseases such as nephritis (inflammation of kidneys), glomerulonephritis (inflammation of glomeruli) can lead to renal failure 
  • kidneys fail --> metabolic wastes build up, normal blood composition goes awry 
  • dialysis: removal of waste products from blood by diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane (treatment for renal failure); must be performed about 6-12 hrs a week 
-hemodialysis: uses a machine, blood is dialyzed through artificial membrane 
-peritoneal dialysis: uses peritoneum as dialyzing membrane to filter blood 
  • dialysis = temporary solution
  • kidney transplant = only permanent treatment

Chapter 16:

male reproductive organs:

female reproductive organs:

Thursday, December 8, 2016

student exhibit // my artwork got second place design!

guys. i am excited & i just thought it would be nice to share a little piece of my happiness w the internet.

so every semester, Lone Star has a Student Exhibit in it's Bosque Gallery.
it is still open, until Dec. 12, 2016. MWF- 10:00AM-1:00PM. TTh- 2:30PM-5:00PM.

my art professor told me to submit some of my artwork to the Student Exhibit so i submitted 2 of my best artworks- "the art of Fishing" & "indigenous."

so i walked into the gallery one day & bam, my 2 pieces were right in front of me & i saw this little red tag under "indigenous" so i went to go look at it & you probably can't read it from the picture but it says "second place design."
i got second place design.

today, i walked into my art class & my professor gave me a certificate for second place design, but that's not all. another art teacher came into the class & told me that the school might possibly want to buy "Indigenous"!!!!!! i mean, there's a whole process that the art committee has to go through & there's always a chance that they don't buy it, probably, but i refuse to let that hinder my excitement. my artwork has buying potential!!!

Monday, December 5, 2016

ch. 16 | the reproductive systems

  • gonads: (ovaries & testes) produce gametes & secretes hormones 
functions of male reproductive system:
  1. testes produce sperm & the male sex hormone testosterone
  2. ducts transport/store/assist in maturation of sperm
  3. accessory sex glands secrete most of the liquid portion of semen
  4. penis contains the urethra, a passageway for ejaculation of semen & excretion of urine 
male reproductive organs:
  • foreskin (prepuce) is removed during circumcision
  • the spongey (penile) region of the urethra fills with blood, causing an erection 
  • sperm production begins during puberty & continues throughout life
  • meiosis: cell division that occurs during production of gametes which receive a set of 23 chromosomes each
structure of sperm:

path of sperm through reproductive tract:

  1. ovaries produce secondary oocytes & hormones (estrogens, inhibin, relaxin, etc.)
  2. uterine tubes transport secondary oocyte to uterus & fertilization usually occurs here
  3. uterus is site of implantation of fertilized ovum, development of the fetus, & labor
  4. vagina receives the penis during sex & is a passageway for childbirth
  5. mammary glands synthesize, secrete, & eject milk for nourishment of the newborn  
female reproductive organs:
  • labia: hair-free fold of tissue next to the urethral & vaginal orifice 
  • there is no tube that sends ovulated oocytes from the ovary directly into the uterine tube
anatomy of breasts:
  • lactation: secretion & ejection of milk by the mammary glands
  • fertilization must occur while both the egg & sperm are still viable 
  • pregnancy lasts from fertilization to delivery (38 weeks)
  • due date is calculated from the 1st day of mother's last menstrual period which occurred 2 weeks prior to fertilization
  • embryonic period: fertilization-8 weeks
  • fetal period: 9 weeks-birth
  • zygote: single cell resulting from the union of make & female gametes; fertilized ovum; contains 46 chromosomes (23 from ovum & 23 from sperm)
  • labor: process of giving birth in which a fetus is expelled from the uterus through the vagina
  • parturition: act of giving birth to young; childbirth/delivery 
  • breech position: heads up or sideways orientation 
stages of labor:
  • puberty: time of life during which the secondary sex characteristics begin to appear & the capability for sexual reproduction is possible; usually btwn ages 10-17
  • menopause: termination of the menstrual cycle