Tuesday, November 8, 2016

ch. 10 | the cardiovascular system: blood

major functions:
  1. transportation: delivers oxygen from lungs to cells, moves carbon dioxide from cells to lungs, carries nutrients/waste products/hormones to destinations
  2. regulation: maintain steady pH, distributes heat/adjusts body temperature
  3. protection: forms seals/clots to prevent blood loss, white blood cells fight disease 
components of blood:
plasma: liquid portion of blood
formed elements: consist of many types of blood cells
erythrocytes= RBCs
leukocytes= WBCs
  • RBCs- deliver oxygen
  • WBCs- fight foreign bodies
  • platelets- clot 
origin & development of blood cells:

  • hemopoiesis: process of making formed elements in red bone marrow
  • hemostasis: stoppage of bleeding
  • thrombus: small clot that forms in an unbroken vessel & dissolves spontaneously 
  • embolus: clot that breaks off & travels through cardiovascular system
  • RBCs are dismantled in spleen/liver/red bone marrow 
  • the hormone erythropoietin stimulates erythropoiesis (red blood cell formation) in red bone marrow 
  • leukocytosis: above average/increase in WBC count
  • leukopenia: below average/reduction in WBC count
  • agglutination: RBCs clump together
  • hemolysis: RBSs burst 
blood types:

  • polycythemia: disorder characterized by too many RBCs
  • anemia: condition of blood in which there are too few RBCs
  • leukemia: red bone marrow cancers in which abnormal white blood cells multiply uncontrollably 
  • neutrophil: most abundant type of WBC in mammals
  • monocyte: WBC w simple oval nucleus and clear, grayish cytoplasm

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