Friday, October 28, 2016

 it's halloweekend! you know what that means? skulls, black, & halloween-themed snapchat filters! 

black, sheer, skull button up blouse
black leggings

Wednesday, October 26, 2016

black laced top (forever 21)
maroon skater skirt (a'gaci)
black floral knee high socks (not completely shown)

Monday, October 24, 2016

white lace top
black "leather" jacket
denim jeans (hollister)
black "gladiator" sandals (rue 21)

Tuesday, October 18, 2016

ch. 5 | Campaigns and Elections

conducting campaigns in the 21st century
  • importance of the media:
-independent candidate: candidate who runs in general election w/o party endorsement or selection
-sound bite: brief statement of candidate's theme communicated by radio/tv in a few seconds
-tv ads allow candidates to structure messages carefully & avoid risk of misstatement
-more money a campaign has, less interest in debating an opponent
-candidates rely on social media to communicate w voters
  • mud slide campaigns:
-suggests reaction of citizens who were disappointed by candidates' low ethical level of campaigning & avoidance of critical public issues 
-character became more important --> more negative campaigning 

campaign reform
  • eliminating negative campaigning:
-focuses on things other than basic issues & candidate personalities that relate to leadership potential
  • increasing free media access:
-television is most important & most expensive communication tool
-Campaign Legal Center supports media access reform
-candidates regularly use Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, etc. to campaign

campaign finance
-candidates need to raise large amounts of cash at local, state, and national levels
-political action committees (PACs): organizational device used by corporations, labor unions, and other organizations to raise money for campaign contributions
-in return for their contributions, big donors receive access to elected officials 
-Texas Ethics Commission: state agency that enforces state standards for lobbyists & public officials
-Campaign Reform Act: 2002, restricts donations of "soft &hard money" for election campaigns
-soft money: unregulated political donations made to national political parties or independent expenditures on behalf of a candidate
-hard money: campaign money donated directly to candidates or political parties & restricted in amount by federal law 
-independent expenditures: pay for political campaign communications that expressly advocate the nomination, election, or defeat of a clearly identified candidate but are not given to, or made at the request of, the candidate's campaign 
-super PAC: independent expenditure-only committees that may raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions, nonprofit organizations, & individuals 

racial & ethnic politics
-Texas is a majority-minority state: Latinos & African Americans = more than half of population
-more likely to vote for Democratic candidates but Republican candidates fare better among Latino voters in TX than nationally
-issues: bilingual educations, political representation, immigration reform
-voting behavior indicates responses to candidates & issues, not to particular party 
-size of Latino population causes politicians to solicit their support 
African Americans:
-tend to identify w Democratic party
-10% of state's potential voters 

women in politics
-expanded presence of women in public office changes public policy 
-fewer women than men seek elective public office 
-parental obligations & age-old prejudices make it harder for women to be work in government

  • obstacles to voting:
-universal suffrage: voting is open for virtually all persons 18+ years old 
-voter registration: qualified voter must register w county voting registrar who compiles lists of qualified voters residing in each voting precinct 
-literacy tests: intended to prevent African Americans & Latinos from voting 
-grandfather clause: exempted people from educational, property, or tax requirements for voting if they were qualified to vote before 1867 or were descendants of such persons 
-poll tax: failure to pay annual tax made a citizen ineligible to vote in party primaries or in elections
-all white primaries: prevented African Americans & some Latinos from participating in Democratic primaries from 1923-1944
-racial gerrymandering: drawing legislative district lines to underrepresent persons of certain races 
-diluting minority votes: creation of at-large majority districts (each electing two or more representatives) dilutes the votes of minority group when combined w majority group

Democratization of the ballot
  • federal voting rights legislation
Voting Rights Act of 1965:
-abolishes use of literacy tests in voter registration
-prohibits residency requirements of 30+ days for voting in presidential elections
-requires states to provide absentee or early voting 
-allows individuals to sue in federal court to request voting examiners be sent to particular area
-bilingual ballots & bilingual oral assistance 
motor-voter law (National Voter Registration Act): requires certain government offices to offer voter registration applications to clients 
  • voter turnout: percentage of voting-age population casting ballots in an election
-Texa's lower voter turnout rates can be explained by lower percentage of eligible voters in the state (citizenship status, convicted felon who has not completed serving sentence, cultural, socioeconomic, & ethnic/racial factors)
-as educational level rises, so does likelihood of voting 

administering elections
-Texas Election Code: body of state law concerning parties, primaries, & elections 
  • qualifications for voting:
-native-born or naturalized citizen of U.S.
-18+ years old 
-resident of state & county for at least 30 days immediately preceding
-resident of area covered by the election
-registered voter for at least 30 days immediately preceding 
-not be a convicted felon (unless sentence/probation/parole are completed)
-not be declared mentally incompetent by court of law
  • voting early:
-early voting ends 4 days before any election or primary 
-can be in-person, voting by mail, machine voting (for military personnel)
  • voting precincts: basic geographic area for conducting primaries & elections
  • election officials: 
-various county & political party officials administer federal, state, & county elections
-elections administrator: person appointed to supervise voter registration & voting 
-election judge: official appointed by county commissioners court to administer an election in a voting precinct 
  • voting systems:
-paper ballot: cheap, easy; counting is slow & error-prone
-optical scan (like a Scantron): expensive to purchase & store
-direct recording electronic (touch screen): expensive to purchase & store

primary, general, & special elections
  • primaries: preliminary election conducted w/in party to select candidates who will run for public office in subsequent general election
-direct primary: nominating system that allows voters to participate directly in the selection of candidates to public office 
-runoff primary: held after the first primary to allow party members to choose a candidate from the first primary's top 2 vote-getters
-closed primary: voters must declare their support for a party before they are permitted to participate in the selection of candidates 
-open primary: voters are not required to declare party identification
-jungle primary: voters indicate preferences by using single ballot w names of candidates of all parties 
  • general elections: determine which candidates will fill government offices
-candidate who receives a plurality in a contest is the winner 
-off-year or midterm election: held in the even-numbered year following a presidential election 
-special election: called by governor to fill a vacancy or to vote on proposed state constitutional amendment or local bond issue 

Thursday, October 13, 2016

beige suede top
"denim" jeggings
sand-colored belt 

ch. 8 | somatic senses & special senses

-cornea: clear covering on iris/pupil
-sclera: white part of eyeball
-pupil: size depends on how much light makes the iris contract
-lens: refracting mechanism that changes shape to focus light on the back of the eye 
-cones: at posterior portion of retina, responsible for color & sharp vision in bright light 
-rods: scattered in retina, responsible for vision in dim light & peripheral vision
-conjunctiva: the mucous membrane that covers the front of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelids


ch. 7 | the nervous system

nervous system functions:
-info input
-info processing
-info output 
  • central nervous system (CNS): composed of brain & spinal cord
-processes info/sensory data
-makes decisions/initiates response 
  • meninges: 3 membranes covering the brain & spinal cord (superficial--> deep)
  1. dura mater
  2. arachnoid mater
  3. pia mater 
  • 4 ventricles:
  1. left lateral
  2. right lateral
  3. third
  4. fourth

spinal cord:
-gray matter is divided into horns: 
anterior horns: motor neurons  
posterior horns: sensory neurons
lateral horns: autonomic neurons 
-white matter: external part of spinal cord, myelinated axons of sensory/motor neurons
-nerve roots: connect spinal cord to PNS
ventral root: efferent, descending tracts, motor info
dorsal root: afferent, ascending tract, sensory info
-spinal nerve: where ventral & dorsal roots combine

-spinal cord does not extend through entire length of vertebrae
-thickest in cervical & lumbar regions (enlargements), thinnest at thorax

cranial nerves:
  • cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): fluid found in the brain & spine; produced in choroid plexuses of ventricles of brain; acts as a cushioning 
  • peripheral nervous system (PNS): consists of nervous tissue structures that lie outside the brain & spinal cord
-senses changes in environment
-sends info to CNS
-receives info from CNS

sensory (afferent) nervous system:
-somatosensory receptors
-special sense receptors
-autonomic sensory receptors 

motor (efferent) nervous system:
  • somatic nervous system: voluntary, controls skeletal muscles, 1 motor neuron
  • autonomic nervous system: involuntary, controls smooth/cardiac/glands, 2 motor neurons
       o sympathetic: fight or flight
-uses ACh as preganglionic neurotransmitter 
-epinephrine or norepinephrine as postganglionic neurotransmitter
-increases heart rate/blood pressure --> delivers oxygen & nutrients to working muscles
-increases rate of breathing --> bring more oxygen into body
-breaks down glycogen & releases glucose --> energy for working muscles
-inhibits digestion --> keeps blood from being diverted from muscles

       o parasympathetic: rest & repair/rest & digest
-uses ACh as pre/postganglionic neurotransmitter
-stimulation of digestive tract --> increased digestion
-vasoconstriction decreases blood flow --> shunts it toward digestive tract
-relaxes bladder & anal muscles --> increased urination & defecation

-interneurons: extend for short distances, btwn afferent & efferent, found in gray matter
-ganglion: collection of nerve cell bodies found in PNS
  • synapse: junction btwn 2 neurons 
  • neurotransmitter: released into synaptic cleft in response to nerve impulse 
plexus: network of neurons formed from emerging branching spinal nerves from spinal cord
  • cervical: distributes to diaphragm
  • brachial: distributes to muscles of arm
  • lumbar: distributes to femur/knee
  • sacral: distributes to gluteus muscles, sciatic (runs down leg)

ch. 6 | the muscular system

  • skeletal muscle tissue is attached to the bones
-striated, voluntary
-produces body movements
-stabilizes the skeleton
-produces heat/maintains body temperature
  • cardiac muscle tissue is found only in the heart
-striated, intercalated discs, involuntary 
-makes up walls of heart
-generates force to pump blood
  • smooth muscle tissue is found in most body organs
-not striated, involuntary 
-forms walls of hollow organs 
-stores and moves substances w/in body
-regulates organ volume
  • sarcomere: contractile unit/building block of a muscle fiber 
  • plasma membrane--> sarcolemma 
  • cytoplasm--> sarcoplasm
  • endoplasmic reticulum--> sarcoplasmic reticulum: transport system 
  • myosin makes up thick filaments 
  • actin makes up thin filaments 
  • nerve signals initiate the contraction of skeletal muscle
  • muscle & nerves DO NOT touch, they meet at a neuromuscular junction: synapse btwn the axon terminals of a motor neuron & the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber 
  • peristalsis: wave-like contraction of muscles 
  • muscles can only contract- not extend
sources that provide ATP:
  1. creatine-phosphate: transfers phosphate from ADP to make ATP
  2. anaerobic respiration (glycolysis): does not require oxygen
  3. aerobic respiration: requires oxygen from myoglobin; provides more ATP than the others 
skeletal muscles work in groups:
  • origin: where a muscle attaches to a stationary bone
  • insertion: other end of muscle is attached to movable bone 
  • belly: fleshy portion of the muscle

skeletal muscles of the body:

-masseter: elevates mandible (closing mouth)
-rectus abdominis: compresses abdomen to aid in defecation, urination, forced exhalation, childbirth
-internal & external oblique: compresses abdomen, bends vertebral column laterally & rotates it 
-transverse abdominis: compresses abdomen

-diaphragm: contracts to inhale & exhale 

Tuesday, October 4, 2016

Ch. 12 | criminal justice system

  • criminal justice system: involves prosecution, defense, sentencing, & punishment of those suspected of convicted of committing a crime
  • Texas Penal Code: body of TX law covering crimes, penalties, & correctional measures
  • enhanced punishment: additional penalties or prison time for those who engage in organized crimes or hate crimes, & for repeat offenders 
  • capital felony: punishable by death or life imprisonment w/o parole 
  • Texas relies heavily on incarceration as a response to drug offenses 
-prosecuting & incarcerating Texans who suffer from addiction limits ability to become healthy
  • Texas law provides enhanced punishment for hate crimes 
  • death penalty:
murder can become capital felony if:
-victim was younger than 10
-victim was a police officer/firefighter/prison employee
-occurs during the commission of another felony
-murder for hire
-serial murders
-inmate-on-inmate murder 

cannot be used on anyone:
-younger than 18 when committing a capital crime
-mentally retarded 
-mentally incompetent at the time of committing a capital crime 
-mentally ill 

Texas Department of Criminal Justice:
  • provide public safety
-current focus on rehabilitation & reentry has reduced escalating imprisonment rates 
-Correctional Institutions Division: responsible for ensuring public safety
   maintaining trained workforce
   difficult working conditions
   demand leads to hiring candidates who have not been properly screened 
   candidates failing to meet physical requirements for job
   candidates not adequately trained to deal w challenging inmate population
  • promote positive behavioral changes
  • reintegrate offenders into general society
-goal of treatment & education programs: equip prisoners w skills to succeed upon release 
-agencies responsible for convicted criminals who serve part of sentences in community:
  1. Community Justice Assistance Division: est. minimum standards for county programs involving community supervision & corrections facilities 
  2. Parole Division: recommends acts of clemency 
  • assist crime victims
-Victim Services Division: provides info to crime victims about any change in offender's status 

  • Juvenile: at least 10 years old but younger than 17 years old 
-juvenile offenders are arrested by the same officers who deal w adult criminals but are detained in separate facilities 

problems & reforms: implications for public policy
  • overcrowding & mental illness in prison
  • technology
-social media: inmates can communicate w each other & outside world
-forensic science: DNA testing 
  • exoneration issues
-Texas conppensates individuals wrongfully incarcerated 
  • racial bias in the criminal justice system
  • misconduct by district attorneys 
-DA represents Texas in criminal cases 
-some unfortunately misuse their power 
-DAs must see that justice is done, instead of focusing on convictions 

Ch. 11 | the judicial branch

  • role: interpret & apply state constitutional provisions, statutory laws, & agency regulations 
  • civil law: concerning noncriminal matters (business contracts, personal injury, etc.)
  • criminal law: concerning felony & misdemeanor offenses by individuals against other person & property, or in violation of laws & ordinances 
  • Texas courts interpret & apply state law 
trial & appellate courts:
  • local trial courts: handle class C misdemeanors 
-municipal courts
-justice of the peace courts
  • county trial courts: probate, civil, & criminal jurisdiction
  • state trial (district) courts: exclusive original jurisdiction over civil cases w $200+
  • intermediate appellate courts: hear appeals of civil & criminal cases from district & county 
  • highest appellate courts: 
-court of criminal appeals 
-Texas supreme court: civil law cases, establishes rules of civil procedure for state's lower courts
  • specialty courts: deal w particular types of problems/populations
  • alternative dispute resolution: use of mediation, conciliation, or arbitration to resolve disputes among individuals w/o resorting to court trial  
  • the State Commission on Judicial Conduct plays role in disciplining state's judiciary 
  • the State Bar of Texas oversees the state's lawyers 
-Legal Aid: free legal attorney w Legal Services Corporation
  • Texas has two types of juries:
-grand juries: 12 persons w qualifications of trial jurors; serves 6 months while determining whether sufficient evidence exists to indict persons accused of committing crimes
-trial (petit) juries: 6 or 12 members
  • qualifications of Texas juror:
-citizen of U.S. & Texas
-18+ years old 
-of sound mind
-not convicted of felony
  • exemptions:
-70+ years old
-legal custody of a child younger than 10 
-enrolled in/attending university, college, secondary school
-primary caregiver for an invalid
-employed by legislative branch 
-serving w/in preceding 2 years in counties w populations of 200,000+
-active military duty outside the county
  • civil law:
-torts: injury to person/person's property resulting from the wrongful act of another
-domestic relations
-family law
  • civil trial procedure:
  1. plaintiff files petition/complaints against defendant & the remedy sought
  2. petition filed w clerk of court
  3. lawsuit contemplated
  4. clerk issues a citation which is delivered to defendant
  5. defendant files an answer to plaintiff's charges 
  6. judge sets a trial date