Sunday, September 25, 2016

ch. 5 | the skeletal system

functions of skeletal system:
  1. support- provides framework to support soft tissues
  2. protection- protects internal organs from injury
  3. movement- muscles provide force while bones serve as levers 
  4. mineral homeostasis- bone tissue stores calcium & phosphorus 
  5. blood cell protection- red bone marrow goes through hemopoiesis (blood cell production)
  6. triglyceride storage- yellow bone marrow is made of adipose cells which stores triglycerides
  • the adult skeletal system is made of 206 different bones
4 types of bones:
  1. long- longer than they are wide, knobby ends, curved structure (arms, legs, fingers, toes)
  2. short- equal in width & length (wrists, ankles)
  3. flat- thin, provide protection & surfaces for muscle attachments (skull, sternum, ribs)
  4. irregular- complex shapes (face, vertebral column)
parts of a long bone:
  • diaphysis: middle of long bone, hollow
has a hollow chamber called medullary cavity 
contains yellow marrow which stores fat 
  • epiphysis: end of long bone, solid
contains red marrow which produces red blood cells
covered by articular cartilage
  • periosteum: tough membrane covering the bone 
  • osteoblasts: build extracellular matrix; when entrapped in matrix--> becomes osteocytes
  • osteoclasts: digest & reabsorb proteins & minerals from matrix
axial skeleton: 80 bones
  • foramen: holes in a bone for passage of vessels or nerves
cranial bones:
  • suture: immovable joint that joins most of the skull bones
  • fontanels: soft spots on a baby's head- allow the bones of skull to compress as baby is born & provide room for brain to grow 
  • hyoid bone: located in the neck, suspended from styloid process; supports tongue, stabilizes airways, provides attachment points for tongue/neck/pharyngeal muscles 

vertebral column: 26 vertebrae

  • types of vertebrae:
-cervical: (7) has 3 openings, neck region
-thoracic: (12) posterior to chest, attachment points for ribs
-lumbar: (5) form lower back
-sacrum: (5 fused into 1) posterior wall of pelvis
-coccyx: (4 fused into 1) tailbone 
  • parts of a vertebrae:
thorax:

appendicular skeleton: 126 bones
  • clavicle & scapula:

  • humerus:
  • radius & ulna:
  • hand:
  • pelvic girdle:
  • femur:
  • knee:
  • fibula & tibia:
  • foot:

types of joints:
  • hinge joint:
  • pivot joint:
  • plane joint:
  •  ball-and-socket:

movements:
  • dorsiflexion: instep of foot moved toward shin
  • plantar flexion: toes pointed downward
  •  flexion: decreases angle btwn bones
  • extension: increases angle btwn bones
  • elevation: upward
  • depression: downward
  • lateral rotation: turn away from midline (horizontally)
  • medial rotation: turn towards midline (horizontally)
  • abduction: move away from midline (vertically)
  • adduction: move towards midline (vertically)

joints classified structurally:
  • fibrous: no movement

  • cartilaginous: 

  • synovial: freely movable

Ch. 8 | the legislative branch

legislative functions: 
  • enact bills
  • adopt resolutions 
  • proposing constitutional amendments
  • adopting budgets for state government
  • levying taxes
  • redistricting
  • impeaching & removing executive & judicial officials 
election & terms of office
  • representatives elected for 2 years
  • senators elected for 4 years 
  • terms begin in January of odd-numbered years 
sessions
regular sessions: session of TX legislature that is constitutionally mandated
  • begins on second Tuesday in January of odd-numbered years
  • lasts for a max. of 140 days 
  • Austin economy benefits bc legislators & lobbyists spend money for housing & entertainment
special sessions: legislative session called by governor 
  • limited to no more than 30 days
  • legislature may only consider matters placed before it by governor
  • costly to taxpayers
  • unpopular w legislators 
districting
  • states divided into districts to provide equal representation 
redistricting: redrawing boundaries 
  • districts redrawn due to migration, births, & deaths 
Reynolds v. Sims: "the seats in both houses of a bicameral state legislature must be apportioned on a population basis" 
Kilgarlin v. Martin: "one person, one vote"
gerrymandering: drawing boundaries of districts to include/exclude certain groups to affect election
single-member district: area that elects only one representative to a policymaking body 
  • reduce campaign costs
  • increase probability that more African American & Latino candidates will be elected
multimember district: all voters participate in election of 2+ representatives to policymaking body 
Perez v. Perry: lawsuits consolidated into one case, claimed the redistricting plans discriminated against Latinos & African Americans 
Shelby County v. Holder: automatic pre-clearance requirements of the Voting Rights Act were no longer applicable 

TX legislatures must meet state constitutional qualifications:
  • U.S. citizen
  • qualified voter
  • one year residence in district to be represented preceding election
  • House: 2 years of TX residence preceding election; Senate: 5 years 
  • House: 21 years old; Senate: 26 years old 
gender & ethnic classifications
  • Anglo men dominate TX legislature 
  • general disrespect of female legislators 
  • African American & Latinos underrepresented 
political party affiliation
  • 2011: Republications achieved super-majority status in House of Representatives 
  • Central city residents usually elect African American & Latino Democrats 
  • Republican senators & representatives get support from rural & suburban Anglo voters 
education & occupation
  • most positions of leadership call for college credentials 
  • most legislators are attorneys, business owners, or managers
  • laborers have held almost no seats 
religious affiliation
  • legislators' religious beliefs may play role in forming public policy 
  • most numerous (in order): Baptists, Methodists, & Episcopalians 
legislative experience
  • terms of turnover (first-termers replacing experienced) or tenure (years served)
  • incumbent more likely to win an election 
  • TX does not have term limits for legislators 
TX legislators receive low pay, reasonable allowances, & generous retirement pension

pay & per diem allowance
  • Texas Ethics Commission sets per diem expense allowance
  • TX voters must approve all recommended salary increases 
expense allowances
  • at the beginning of each session, each chamber authorizes contingent expense allowances 
  • use money to cover cost of work-related travel, postage, office operations, staff salaries 
retirement pension
  • Texas State Employees Retirement Act of 1975: legislators contribute 8% of their state salaries to retirement fund 
  • many legislators do not serve long enough to qualify for a pension
president of Senate: the lieutenant governor:
  • not a member of the state Senate
  • presides over most sessions & plays leading role in legislative matters
  • first in line of succession in event of death/resignation/removal of governor 
  • powers granted by Senate rules 
  • Senate elects president pro tempore= presides when lieutenant governor is absent/disabled
presiding officer of the House of Representatives: Speaker of the House:
  • candidates must file w Texas Ethics Commission
presiding officers appoint committee chairs & determine the committees to which bills are referred

house committees
substantive committee: appointed by House Speaker
  • considers bills & resolutions related to subject identified by its name
  • may recommend passage of proposed legislation to appropriate calendars committee
procedural committee: consider bills & resolutions relating to procedural legislative matters
select committee: created by House Speaker or lieutenant governor; may consider legislation that crosses committee jurisdictional lines/may conduct special studies
interim committee: House/Senate committee appointed by Speaker or lieutenant governor to study important policy issue btwn regular sessions

senate committees
standing committee: appointed by lieutenant governor for purpose of considering proposed bills ^ resolutions before possible floor debate & voting 

legislative caucuses: legislators who try to maximize influence over issues of special interest
  • party caucuses: take policy positions on issues & promote unity among members
  • racial/ethnic caucuses: organize & form voting blocs to maximize their power 
  • ideological caucuses: conservative & liberal caucuses reflect opposing views on most issues 
  • bipartisan caucuses: framed around specific issues 
along w their powers, lawmakers have immunities from prosecution

making public policy 
  • most typical exercise of legislative power 
  • passing bills & adopting resolutions
simple resolution: requires action by one legislative chamber only 
concurrent resolution: adopted by House & Senate majorities then approved by governor 
joint resolution: majority vote in each house when used to ratify an amendment 
bill: proposed law or statute 
  • special bill: makes exception to general laws for specific individual/class/corporation
  • general bill: apply to all people/property
  • local bill: creates/affects single unity of local government 
constitutional amendment power
  • members of either chamber can introduce joint resolution to amend TX constitution 
  • approved by 2/3rds majority vote --> proposal is made 
administrative & investigative powers 
oversight: requires reports from state agencies concerning their operations
  • state auditor gives info to House & Senate about use of state funds by administrative agencies 
Sunset Advisory Commission: recommends continuation/merger/division/abolition of agencies 
senatorial courtesy: Senate rejects an appointment if appointee is declared "personally objectionable" by senator representing the district in which the appointee resiedes
impeachment & removal powers
  • House of Representatives has power to impeach all elected state judges & justices 
impeachment: brings charges leading to possible removal of certain officials 

immunities
  • can't be sued for slander 
  • not held accountable for statements made in speech or debate during legislative proceeding
  • may not be arrested while attending legislative session or traveling to/from meeting place 
each chamber adopts its own set of rules at the beginning of every regular session
parliamentarian: an expert on rules of order who sits at left of the presiding officer in House or Senate & provides advice on procedural questions

how a bill becomes a law

1. introduction in the House
  • companion bill: filed in one house but identical/similar to a bill filed in other chamber- speeds passage of bill bc committee consideration may take place simultaneously in both houses 
2. first reading (House) & referral to committee
3. house committee consideration & report 
  • bill analysis that summarizes important provisions of bill
4. second reading (House)
  • ghost voting: prohibited practice of one representative pressing the voting button of another member who is absent (unless given permission)
  • chubbing: representatives engage in lengthy debate for the purpose of using time & preventing a vote on a bill that they oppose 
5. third reading (House)
6. first reading (Senate)
7. Senate committee consideration & report 
  • two-thirds rule: procedural device to control bringing bills to the Senate floor for debate
8. second reading (Senate)
9. third reading (Senate)
10. return to the House
11. conference committee
  • committee composed of representatives & senators appointed to reach agreement on a disputed bill & recommend changes acceptable to both chambers 
12. conference committee report
13. enrollment
  • bill is stamped "enrolled" & report is presented to the House
14. signatures of chief clerk & speaker
15. signatures of secretary of Senate & lieutenant governor 
16. action by governor 
  • 3 options:
  1. sign bill 
  2. allow it to remain unsigned for 10 days- becomes law w/o chief executive's signature 
  3. w/in 10 day period, veto- return to House, unsigned, w reason for veto
influences w/in legislative environment:

the Texas Legislative Council
  • authorizes special research projects 
  • bill drafting
  • advice for legislators 
  • legislative research & writing 
  • publishing & document distribution
  • interim study committee research support
  • demograpic & statistical date compilation & analysis
  • computer mapping & analysis
the House Research Organization
  • independent of House leadership
  • produces reports on policy issues & House procedures 
  • prepares Daily Floor Report for each day the legislature is in session
  • analyze important bills to be considered
  • provide summary of bill content & presenting arguments for/against each bill 
  • publishes report on session's important bills & resolutions
the Senate Research Center
  • analyzes bills under consideration by Senate
  • conducts research on diverse issues
  • responds to requests from Senate members for research & info
the Center for Public Policy Priorities
  • independent nonprofit 
  • focus on problems of low/moderate income families
the Texas Public Policy Foundation 
  • research on issues supporting limited government, free enterprise, private property rights, etc.

Sunday, September 18, 2016

Ch. 2 | federalism & the Texas constitution

federalism: structure of government characterized by the division of powers btwn a national government & associated regional governments
10th amendment: "the powers not delegated by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the people"
national supremacy clause: emphasizes that the U.S. constitution & acts of Congress must prevail over state constitutions & laws enacted by state legislatures
delegated powers: (of the national government) listed in the U.S. constitution, article 1, section 8
-regulate interstate & foreign commerce
-borrow & coin money
-establish post offices & post roads
-declare war
-raise & support armies
-provide & maintain a navy
-levy & collect taxes
-establish uniform rules of naturalization
implied powers: power to "make all laws which shall be necessary & proper"
constitutional guarantees: (under the rights & protections of U.S. constitution)
-a state cannot divide itself nor combine w another state w/o consent of Congress
-each state guaranteed a republican form of gov. (representative gov. w elected lawmakers)
-each state guaranteed 2 senators & 1 member of House of Representatives
-all states participate in presidential elections through the electoral college
-all states participate in approving/rejecting proposed amendments
-each state entitled to protection against invasion & domestic violence
-TX is assured that trials by federal courts for crimes committed in TX will be conducted in TX
privileges & immunities: Article IV & 11th amendment guarantees citizens of every state protection by the government, enjoyment of life & liberty, right to acquire & possess property, right to leave & enter any state, & right to use of courts
full faith & credit clause: most legislative enactments, state constitutions, deeds, wills, marriages, divorces, etc. of another state must be officially recognized in other states
reserved powers: (of the states)
-police: protection of citizens' health/morals/safety/convenience
-taxing: raising revenue to pay salaries of state employees, meet other gov. costs
-proprietary: public ownership of property
-eminent domain: taking private property at fair price for public use
federal grants-in-aid: money to help states provide needed facilities & services
devolution: decline in national control over state governments = more power for states
block grants: allows state flexibility in spending for a program

Texas Constitution (1876) is the main source of power for TX government
^ has been amended no fewer than 483 times
TX has been governed by its state constitutions of 1845, 1861, 1866, 1869, & 1876
Texas Grange: farmers' organization committed to limited gov. & spending
constitutional amendment process: (for changing the TX constitution) an amendment is proposed by 2/3rds vote of each chamber of legislature & approved by majority of votes in election
constitutional amendment election: voters asked to approve proposed constitutional amendments
initiative: citizen-drafted measure proposed by a specific number of voters that becomes law if approved by popular vote
constitutional revision: extensive or complete rewriting of a constitution
November 1975 was the last time that voters were presented w a wholesale constitutional revision proposal from the state legislature

Texas Bill of Rights: (article 1 of TX constitution) guarantees protections for:
-people & their property against arbitrary actions by state & local governments
-freedom of speech
-freedom of press
-freedom of religion
-freedom of assembly
-freedom of petition
-rights of criminals & victims
-equal rights for women
Texas Equal Legal Rights Amendment: guarantees equality of sex/race/color/creed/etc.
the TX constitution contains constitutional rights not found in the U.S. constitution
separation of powers: (article II) law-making/enforcing/interpreting= separate branches of gov.
-Legislative department: (article III) bicameral legislature-House of Representatives & Senate
-Executive department: (article IV) governor= Chief executive officer of the State
-Judicial department: (article V) TX has bifurcated court system- 2 courts of final appeal: Supreme Court of TX (civil cases) & Court of Criminal Appeals (criminal cases)
suffrage: the right to vote (article VI)
local government: counties, municipalities, school districts, etc. that provide a range of services
other articles:
-education
-taxation & revenue
-public lands & land office
-impeachment
-general provisions
-mode of amendment

Ch. 4 | the integumentary system

integumentary system: composed of skin, hair, oil, sweat glands, nails, sensory receptors
skin/cutaneous membrane; covers external surface of the body
epidermis: superficial, thinner layer of skin made of epithelial tissue
layers:

dermis: deeper, thicker layer of skin made of connective tissue 
papillary region: upper part of dermis- provides epidermis w nutrients, produces keratincoytes, regulates temperature
reticular region: lower part of dermis- strengthens skin, provides elasticity, contains hair follicles & glands

Meissner's (a.k.a. tactile) corpsucle: touch receptor
Pacinian (a.k.a. lamellated) corpsucle: pressure receptor
arrector pili muscles: pulls hairs into upright position

skin color is caused by pigments
  • melanin: dark black/brown/yellow pigment 
  • hemoglobin: red pigment 
  • carotene: yellow/orange pigment
hair protects the skin & other structures of the body
parts:
  • shaft: above skin surface
  • root: below surface 
  • hair follicle: surrounds the root 
  • hair root plexuses: nerve endings that surround hair follicles 
androgens: masculinizing sex hormone produced by testes in males & adrenal cortex in both genders

glands produce secretions that perform a variety of functions
  • sebaceous: secrete sebum (oily substance), softens skin, prevents hair from drying out 
  • sudoriferous: sweat glands 
-eccrine: all over the body- regulates body temperature
-apocrine: in axillary & pubic regions 
  • ceruminous: sweat glands in ear canal & outer ear, secrete cerumen (earwax)
parts of the nail:
dividing cells of a nail are located in nail matrix

skin plays a number of roles in the body:
  • regulates body temperature
  • forms a protective barrier for the internal organs
  • absorbs & excretes substances through its surface 
  • plays a role in calcium homeostasis 
edema: abnormal accumulation of interstitial fluid

burns:
1st degree: damages epidermis; redness, mild pain
2nd degree: damages epidermis & superficial part of dermis; blisters, edema
3rd degree: damages epidermis & dermis; marble-white to black color 
4th degree: damages epidermis, dermis, & additional soft tissue underlying the skin
rule of nines: used to estimate the surface area affected by burns in an adult 

skin cancers can develop from repeated exposure to UV radiation:
  • basal cell carcinoma (78% of all skin cancers)
  • squamous cell carcinoma (20% of all skin cancers)
  • malignant melanoma (2% of all skin cancers)

Thursday, September 15, 2016

Ch. 3 | cells & tissues

cell parts:

organelle: membrane-bound structure w/in a cell that carries out specific functions
cytoplasm: area btwn plasma membrane & nucleus; contains organelles & cytosol (fluid inside cell)
nucleus: houses genetic material
functions:
  1. controls cellular structure
  2. directs cellular activities
  3. produces ribosomes in nucleoli
plasma membrane: cell's gatekeeper; semi-permeable lipid bilayer
functions: 
  1. barrier separating inside & outside of cell
  2. controls flow of substances into & out of cell
  3. helps identify the cell to other cells 
  4. participates in intercellular signaling
centrosomes: consists of centriole pairs
function:
  1. plays a role in cell division
ribosomes: made of RNA & proteins 
functions:
  1. make new proteins
smooth endoplasmic reticulum: doesn't have ribosomes 
functions:
  1. synthesizes fatty acids & steriods
  2. inactivates/detoxifies drugs & harmful substances
  3. stores & releases calcium ions  
rough endoplasmic reticulum: contains ribosomes on walls 
function:
  1. make proteins 
golgi complex: array of flat membrane sacs 
functions:
  1. modifies/sorts/packages/transport proteins received from rough ER
  2. transfer proteins to their destinations 
mitochondria: folded inner membrane surrounded by smooth outer membrane 
functions:
  1. generates ATP/energy 
membranes: transport substances 
2 fluid compartments:
  1. intracellular fluid (inside the cell)
  2. extracellular fluid (outside the cell); different locations = different names:
      -interstitial fluid: btwn cells w/in a tissue
      -plasma: w/in blood vessels
      -lymph: w/in lymphatic vessels
      -cerebrospinal fluid: surrounding brain & spinal cord

concentration: amount of solute dissolved in a given volume of solvent 
concentration gradient: difference in concentration of substance btwn 2 areas 

types of transport: 
  • passive: movement w/o using energy 
  1. diffusion- substances move high-->low concentration (down concentration gradient)
  2. facilitated- diffusion using a channel/pore/carrier
  3. osmosis- diffusion of water 
-hypotonic: solution has lower solute concentration than cytosol = cell swells 
-isotonic: solution has same solute concentration as cytosol = no net movement
-hypertonic: solution has higher solute concentration than cytosol = shrivels up 
  • active: energy is used to move substances across a membrane against concentration gradient 
protein synthesis: complex process in which proteins are made 
TRANSCRIPTION:
1. gene on DNA strand is copied into mRNA (messenger RNA)
2. mRNA is transported out of the nucleus & into ribosomes
TRANSLATION: 
3. ribosomes read mRNA so tRNA (transfer RNA) knows which amino acids to bring
4. ribosomes join amino acids together as required by DNA
5. ribosome falls apart & releases newly made protein

cell division functions:
  1. cell renewal
  2. cell repair
  3. cell growth
  4. reproduction
types of cell division:

  • mitosis: somatic cell division
parts of interphase: (resting phase) 

1. G1- growth phase where proteins are synthesized 

2. S- DNA is replicated

3. G2- another growth phase where proteins are made 

  • cytokinesis: cytoplasm division
  • meiosis: gamete cell division 
daughter cell: either of the two identical cells that form when a cell divides

tissues: groups of cells working together to perform a specific function 
2 components found in tissue: 
  1. cells
  2. extracellular matrix (which has 2 components: ground substance & protein fibers)
4 basic types of tissues:
1. epithelial: protection, covers body surfaces, form glands, lines body cavities/hollow organs/ducts
  • epithelial cell shapes & layers:
simple:absorption/secretion
stratified: protection

locations:
Simple squamous- blood vessels, lining of heart (diffusion & filtration) 
Simple cuboidal- ovary linings, eye surfaces (secretion & absorption) 
Simple columnar- lining of digestive tract (absorption) 
Stratified squamous- skin (upper layers), lining of vagina, mouth (protects underlying cells) 
Transitional- lining of urinary bladder (specialized) 
Pseudostratified columnar- lines respiratory passageways

2. connective: binds/protects/supports body & organs
locations:
  • Areolar – skin (provides strength/elasticity/support)
  • Adipose – hypodermis/subcutaneous layer (energy reserve/support/protection)

  • Reticular – spleen, lymph nodes (forms framework of organs, binds smooth muscle cells)
  • Bone – bones of the skeletal system (mechanical support, blood cell production)
  • Blood – blood vessels (transport of substances & gases)

3. muscular: generates force for movement, contracts

locations:
  • Skeletal muscle – attached to the skeleton (striated, voluntary)
  • Smooth muscle – inside hollow organs (striated, involuntary, intercalated discs)
  • Cardiac muscle – located in the heart (not striated, involuntary)
4. nervous: transmit impulses to coordinate activities, receives stimuli
  • neurons: specialized cells that are sensitive to various stimuli
  • neuroglia: supporting cells that don't generate nerve impulses 
locations:
  • Nerve cells – located throughout the body
microscope parts: