Friday, August 12, 2016

intro to biochemistry (notes)

  • polar
  • electrons (H) are shared unequally
  • cohesion: water sticks to water
  • adhesion: water molecules attracted to other types of molecules
  • surface tension: adhesion + cohesion
  • universal solvent: many things dissolve in water 
chemical reactions where molecules are put together/bond = energy stored
break the bonds--> release energy
sum of all these chemical reactions = metabolism 

synthesis reactions: 
  • putting molecules together (storing energy)
  • anabolic/constructive reactions
  • monomers join to form polymers by dehydration synthesis
decomposition reactions:
  • breakdown (releases energy)
  • catabolic/destructive reactions
  • polymers break down into monomers by hydrolysis 
organic molecules have "carbon-carbon" or "carbon-hydrogen" bonds
macromolecules: large molecules containing millions of atoms
present in all forms of life 
  • carbs: saccharides- sugars --> immediate energy; cell respiration --> ATP for cells
  • nucleic acids: contain genetic information (DNA + RNA), A-T, G-C, contains genes
  • proteins: peptide bonds, amino acids, form cytoskeleton; cellular transport
  • enzymes: proteins, catalysts of metabolic reactions, control chemical reactions. have active site that binds to one specific substrate --> changed into product, released from enzyme
  • lipids: water insoluble (hydrophobic). ex. fats, oils, waxes; high energy bonds, long-term energy storage. cushions & protects internal organs, waterproofing 
-saturated: no double bonds
-unsaturated: 1 or more C=C double bonds

phospholipid: molecules that make-up cell membrane

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