Saturday, May 28, 2016

it's Jason's graduation day!

got all dressed up to see my best friend walk the stage & get his diploma!

took loads of pictures- i'm so proud of him. when i met him, he was just a little fishie (freshman) 
but now he's a high school graduate!!!! 







a door has closed but another has opened. it may be the end of high school for him, but it's just the beginning of the rest of his life. my best friend is off to change the world.

Thursday, May 26, 2016

got my nails did (by me)! my toe nails are the same gray w/o the accent nail. i'm wearing a gray dress to my best friend's graduation & finally got new gray nail polish so yay. i like how this turned out.
O.P.I.'s "Embrace the Gray"
ORLY's French Manicure "Sheer Nude"
O.P.I.'s top coat

Monday, May 23, 2016

Into You | Ariana Grande (Official Music Video)

oh. my. gosh. yes. just. yes. 
yes, this is ANOTHER Ariana Grande music video that i'm posting about bc she is perfection. 
however, i feel as if "Into You" & "Let Me Love You" should switch videos. i legit played "Let Me Love You" while watching "Into You" (on mute) & vice versa & i feel like they fit better if they switch, but that's just my opinion. EITHER WAY, she looked like an absolute goddess in this video, w her sexy outfit in the desert (??) & she even looked sexy when she was in those ripped jeans & a big hoodie. the scenes w her & the male actor were cute & sexy & the whole time, i was thinking "ugh goals." every video & song that Ariana has come out w lately has taken my breath away w the amazing filming skills, cute outfits, & just Ariana in general. everything that she does, she excels in. her acting, her singing, & even her choreography are on point. every time i watch one of her videos, i get so excited to see her beautiful face & hear her amazing talent. every song that i've heard by her, i've immediately fall in love w. she continues to grow & better herself in her music & i think that everything that she has accomplished has been absolutely amazing. just thinking about this video makes me want to re-watch it (i might actually).

Sunday, May 22, 2016

Let Me Love You | Ariana Grande ft. Lil Wayne


another Ariana Grande video is here! 
although all i got from the music video is they tried to make it kind of sexy- shots of her back arching, her on a bed, her in lingerie, etc.- to fit the almost chill-sexy vibe of the song. but you know what, Ariana IS sexy so i don't even care that i didn't get what the concept of the music video was. just seeing her looking so point & hearing her amazing vocals, unf.
also, can i just say that now that i've seen her w her wavy/curly hair, i can die happy. it's amazing & i'm so obsessed w it. can we just acknowledge how beautiful she is & how cute AND sexy her outfits are & the fact that "her eyelash game is sooooooooooooooo on point" -Paul. i'm absolutely obsessed w her make up & her black outfits & her chokers & her camo top & her red lipstick (in her part w Lil Wayne).
also, i love how Lil Wayne's rap goes so well into the song even though i never would have imagined Ariana & Lil Wayne in a song together. but did you see how natural their interactions were in the video? they were just having a good ol' time working together. i'm pretty in love w the rap. Lil Wayne says "Ariana, my lil mama, goodbye to the good girl" which is such a good lyric for this album. Ariana is transitioning into a more mature & adult sound, showing her inner "Dangerous Woman" & Lil Wayne's line simply reinforces that idea. Then he says "my name change from Lil Wayne to oh Wayne, oh Lord, she grinding on this Grande" which i thought was a really clever use of their names. 
to sum this whole post up though, i am obsessed w her, w this song, & w this video. 

Wednesday, May 18, 2016

"An Open Letter To Meghan Trainor" | Spoken Word Poetry


yes! omg. this is everything that i have been trying to convey about Meghan Trainor's song "All About That Bass"
as great of a message as the song could have been, i was disappointed hearing the way she regarded skinny people, as if they were somehow wrong for the way they looked/the way their bodies were. as a skinny person, i thought, you say "every inch of you is perfect from the bottom to the top" but followed it up with "boys like a little more booty to hold at night" & "I'm bringing booty back, go 'head and tell them skinny b*tches that."
  1. who says that skinny girls can't have a booty?
  2. who says that all guys want a girl bc of her booty?
  3. why did you have to say skinny b*tches?
  4. what's wrong w being skinny?
i mean, of course, i get where she's coming from, that she wanted to raise up bigger girls & help them be more confident, but why do skinny girls have to be knocked down in order for that to happen?
"every inch of you is perfect from the bottom to the top" should have been the main focus of the song but it seemed like the focus was more on "bringing booty back." i do believe it's hard enough to write a body positive song but i just wish that it could have applied more to all bodies, not just bigger bodies. 

Tuesday, May 17, 2016

Room Tour!

do you ever just get tired of looking at the same thing every day? & by thing, i mean your room. i get bored of my room all of the time & i always want to re-decorate or move things around or clean up. so i finally did it now that it's summer & i have all of this time. when most people do interior decorating/re-decorating, they try to get things in their room to match & look nice & some people even take the minimalist approach. not me, no sir. i have paintings or artwork or something on most of the free space on my walls & in my room. nothing really matches yet everything somehow comes together to form perfection (in my eyes ofc). i have been complimented on my room before- people like my paintings on my walls, or my mom always brings people in whenever we have guests (i don't know why she does it, but she does it EVERY time). so without further ado, here ya go (excooz the bad quality panoramas- i used my phone): 

walls #1, (artwork/desk) #2 (window/bed), & #3 (bed/closet door/shelf)
peep the anchor painting & the palm trees painting
wall #1- artwork/desk wall
most of the art pieces were from my art AP portfolio in high school
closer look: desktop
got my laptop, mirror, pens, calendar, whiteboard (to do list), & the cork
board of pictures & little things that remind me of good times.
walls #1, #2, & #4 (painting wall)
this is the wall that people really like for some reason- my wall of paintings. it's a bunch of random & terribly misplaced
paintings but it's too late to do anything about that now! (the self-portrait is not a painting, it's just covering up a painting)
wall #3 has a doorway, leading into my closet. it's a walk-in one & i've got everything in there. i've got tfios (the fault in our stars) & an x-men poster on my door, & a superman color page/painting on my wall. 
on the left side (if you're entering) i've got my homecoming mum, shelves with shoes, clothes, books, perfume, jewelry, etc. it's pretty packed but i made do w the space that i had. 
right: clothes hanging, a bunch of junk on the top shelf, & a dresser of clothes (although one drawer has art supplies)
when you walk into my closet, this is one of the first things you see- my little seating area. it's a sleeping bag w pillows & most of my stuffed animals on it. it's been moved around a couple of times but i've decided to move it back under my closet window. 
andddddddd that is the gist of how my room looks now- i am pretty happy w how it turned out. 

Tuesday, May 10, 2016

HIST 1302 exam #4 | review

Cold War 1953-1963:
  • what happened under Eisenhower?
-shift in South's voting (changing from Democratic to Republican)
-want to cut military budget -> Castle Bravo testing of Hydrogen bomb (switch from conventional military to nuclear bc cost less & less maintenance) 

-New Look Nuclear Strategy: 
   massive retaliation: respond to any aggression w overwhelming force (a.k.a. bomb)
   brinkmanship: any argument will lead to brink of nuclear warfare (game of chicken)
   mutually assured destruction (MAD): no one can win a nuclear war

-civil defense programs (duck & cover, bomb shelters) make U.S. think they can "win"
-Cuba, Jan. 1, 1959: Fidel Castro overthrows Fulgencio Batista (U.S. benefited from his leadership). Eisenhower treats Castro as a communist & wants to use Cubans (who left Cuba to go to the U.S.) to invade & overthrow Castro
  • what happened under Kennedy?
-Bay of Pigs invasion, Apr., 1961: continues Eisenhower's idea of using Cubans to invade Cuba. anti-Castro Cubans are caught --> U.S. failure 
-Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev & JFK meet in 1961--> JFK wants bigger defense system (to make Khrushchev think U.S. is preparing for war & to look strong)
-Brain drain: Khrushchev asks JFK to stop letting Soviet educated professionals in but says no --> Berlin Wall (Aug. 12-13, 1961): becomes a symbol of tensions in the cold war --> Ich Bin Ein Berliner speech by JFK at the Berlin Wall, talked about solidarity
-Cuban missile crisis (Oct. 1962): Kennedy builds military for war bc brink of nuclear war w east Berlin --> American "quarantine" (blockade) of Cuba so no Soviet ships can get to Cuba (bc U.S. thinks there are no nuclear bombs there yet) --> Kennedy's television speech --> Khrushchev says it's only fair that the Soviets have missiles in Cuba as defense bc U.S. has missiles in Turkey. says for both sides to get rid of the missiles. JFK says no to seem strong against communism (publicly has cuban missiles removed & turkey's missiles removed in private)

5 outcomes:
  1. New Look nuclear policies
  2. move away from New Look nuclear policies bc extreme & scare citizens
  3. Kennedy looks strong 
  4. leads to largest arms build up in Soviet army
  5. anti-nuclear movement gets stronger (ex. Women Strike For Peace)
  • what ideas influenced their actions?
Eisenhower: wanting to keep balanced budget by cutting military budget
Kennedy: wanted to seem strong against Communism

African American Civil Rights 1954-1963:
  • what major events took place? why were these events done?
-Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
-Little Rock Nine 
-Montgomery bus boycott
-sit-in movement starts in North Carolina (Feb. 1, 1960) at Woolworth's segregated lunch counter. created economic pressure & gains publicity
-Congress of Racial Equality (CORE): sent freedom riders into Alabama to show opposition to segregated buses
-James Meredith & integration of University of Mississippi 1962: got help from Medgar Evers (NAACP), ruled that the school had to let him attend bc he's only being denied on race. riots trying to kill him as he goes to the school, JFK goes on TV & for the first time publicly supports civil rights
-Birmingham marches 1963: march for basic civil rights & right to vote (civil rights bill). stopped by Eugene "Bull" Connor & arrested for conducting illegal parade
-march on Washington 1963: "I have a dream"
-Freedom Summers (1963-64): done by college students in order to:

  1. encourage black men & women to register to vote
  2. educate black children on black history
  3. hold mock elections to show that blacks would vote if they could (bc whites say they wouldn't)
after Brown v. Board/1954, supreme court supports civil rights 
  • how did blacks cause and/or respond to these events?
-sit-in movement spreads, view-ins, swim-ins, read-ins @ segregated places
-student nonviolent coordinating committee (SNCC): black, white, men, women, young
   leader of Atlanta Chapter: Julian Bond
  • how did whites respond to them?
-Freedom summers: violence, bombing, murder, beating
-Michael Schwerner (white), Andrew Goodman (white), James Chaney (black): organized for Freedom summers --> died --> FBI investigation bc 2 white men died --> media attention  
-Fannie Lour Hamor: tried to register to vote- denied. used "white" (segregation was illegal) fountain & bathroom- arrested & beat, evicted & fired
-bombing of 16th street Baptist church (Alabama): bc meeting place for blacks
  • why did the movement change in 1965 and afterwards?
-Lyndon Johnson becomes president --> passing of civil rights act of 1964: people are protected based on nation origin, race, religion, & sex
   -bans discrimination in public accommodations
   -bans discrimination in companies w more than 25 employees
   -stops federal funding to programs that discriminate
   -increases enforcement power- Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
-Selma March (March 7) 1965 --> Bloody Sunday (police riot) was broadcasted on TV & everyone saw the violence of the white police --> second Selma March (March 21) --> Johnson pushed for voting rights bill
-Voting Rights act of 1965:
  1. federal examiners register voters
  2. suspend literacy tests
  3. threatened to enforce 15th amendment (allow blacks to  vote or lose % of congressmen)
  4. only applied to 9 states at first
-24th amendment 1964: get rid of poll taxes & registration fees
-1965-75 integration (bc blacks can vote now)
-4 ways civil rights changes:
  1. more militant/angry bc built up anger
  2. abandoning non-violence bc whites only understand violence
  3. move into North to demand change
  4. in North & West- economic racism, job discrimination, utilities & rent more expensive, redlining
-Malcom X: black nationalism & separatism, defend ourselves by any means necessary, extremist
-Stokely Carmichael: black power, tells people to buy guns, kick whites out of SNCC
-Watts Riot 1965: 6 days, fire, looting bc racist L.A. police pull over black drivers & beat them
-Detriot race riot 1967: private apartment party --> police came & tried to arrest everyone --> shoot-out, tanks, etc. --> blacks burn down everything (to re-build better society afterwards) --> national guard sent in --> whites scared --> turn away from civil rights
-assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. (Apr. 4, 1968) 
-Black panthers: organized to stop police from stopping & beating black drivers, defend black community, monitor police 

Women's Rights movement:
  • how did the feminist movement begin?
3 types of women who joined the movement:
  1. traditional women's occupations: secretary, teacher, nurse, etc. limited job choices & paid less than men
  2. civil rights activists: ex. Ella Baker (has to overcome race & sex discrimination)
  3. housewives (who don't want to be): forced to be unpaid domestic servants (jobs will fire them so that they will put their husband & children ahead of themselves) ex. Betty Friedan: wrote the Feminine Mystique about how housewives hated their lives
characteristics of feminism:
  1. very diverse (bc so many diff. types of women)
  2. de-centralized (many organizations, not just one leader bc ^)
  3. grassroots movement (slow changes in social attitudes, no huge landmark changes)
  4. media-attention (to highlight the problems)
  • what changes did the movement want?
-miss America protest 1968: fight objectification & that men were judged on action while women on looks
-gynecological & breast exams bc women were not allowed to touch themselves (to check), male doctors benefited from the way that women laid (objectification), they talked to your husband about course of action instead of you, males suggest cutting off both breasts --> women doctors wrote Our Bodies Our Selves suggesting to touch yourself to check & alternatives to surgery
-National Organization for Women 1966- want to achieve:
  1. equal pay
  2. equal opportunity (should be allowed to have any jobs)
  3. equal marriages (housework, no men-women standards)
-wanted the equal rights amendment: can't discriminate against sex but it failed 
  • what tactics did the movement use?
-consciousness raising: making women aware that they aren't alone, it's organized political oppression/male supremacy
-Ms. Magazine: women w journalism degrees wanted to write about more than just the "women's page" (cooking, fashion/style, household stuff) so created magazine to talk about politics
-women's march for equality 1970
  • what successes did the movement have?
-Title IX (of education amendment 1972): can't discriminate against sex if funded by federal gov.
-equal credit opportunity act 1974: women can get credit in her own name
-pregnancy discrimination act 1978: can't get fired bc you're pregnant, can get pregnant, might in the future get pregnant, etc., can't ask about it 
-(Estelle) Griswold v. Connecticut 1965: in Connecticut, women couldn't get birth control or info w/o consent of husband. Supreme Court ruled that you can't be denied birth control info
-Roe v. Wade 1973: abortion is legal
  • how did conservatives respond to the movement?
4 groups who are against feminism:
  1. conservative men
  2. fundamentalist Christians
  3. housewives (who enjoy being one- mostly upper class women)
  4. media 
-Marabel Morgan: anti-feminist, fundamental Christian, housewife: writes The Total Woman (teaches how to interact w husband) & Total Joy (how to make husband happy)
-Phyllis Schlafly: conservative Republican activist. argues that if you don't embrace your role as a wife & mother (by devoting your life to husband & children, & not working) then your children will be gay. believes that equal rights amendment will lead to:
  1. drafting of women --> death in combat
  2. men & women sharing bathrooms together
  3. men-men or women-women (gay) marriages 
Vietnam War:
  • what major battles took place?
-Battle of Dien Bien Phu 1954: French underestimated Ho Chi Minh's followers --> siege --> French surrender 
-Gulf of Tonkin incident (1964): "North Vietnamese attacked American ships"
-Tet offensive (Jan. 30-31, 1968): Viet Cong attacks, gov. says Amer. "won" the tet offensive bc the VC didn't capture all of the places 
-My Lai massacre: Americans hear that children are dying, women raped etc., Vietnamese rounded up & ordered to be massacred
  • what major decisions did the presidents from Kennedy through Ford make?
Kennedy:
-America divided Vietnam at 17th parallel 
Johnson: 
-Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: will send Amer. troops to South Vietnam to protect American interests (not a declaration of war) --> military escalation
Nixon:
  1. policy of Vietnamization: replace Amer. troops w South Vietnamese troops --> troop morale decreases --> more drug use, refusal to fight, etc.
  2. bomb north Vietnam but north Vietnamese went underground
  3. air invasion of Cambodia to bomb Ho Chi Minh trail (North Vietnamese use to supply Viet Cong) --> Cambodia's gov. falls apart
Ford: 
declared Amer. involvement in VN was over
fall of Saigon (Apr. 30, 1975)
pardoned Nixon 
  • what role did protesters & the media play in the war?
-anti-war Pentagon march 1967: blamed Johnson 
-credibility gap: what the president & gov. says about the war is diff. than what's seen in the media 
-1970: students protest more bc Nixon expanded war into other countries --> attacks on ROTC buildings
-kids pulled out of college bc violent protests happening on campuses (Kent State & Jackson State)
-publication of Pentagon Papers 1971: leaked --> news published, revealed basis for Vietnam:
  1. open-ended war (as long as the Viet Cong fight, U.S. fights)
  2. war of attrition (endurance --> high death tolls)
  3. Vietnam war is limited bc can't invade North VN or China would come in 
  4. truth about Gulf of Tonkin incident: Amer. & South VN ships were putting mines in North VN's harbors = "act of terrorism" 
  • how did the war affect American society?
  1. divisive war: pro-war vs. anti-war
  2. changes military: no draft since VN bc scared of protests
  3. more question/mistrust of gov.
  4. inflation
  5. should we help the Vietnamese boat people who fled from VN?
  6. what to do w draft dodgers? 
Mexican American, Native American and Gay/Lesbian rights:
  • what major events took place for each of these movements?
Mexican American: Chavez (mentioned later on) led nonviolent protests, boycotted grapes to get growers to agree to labor contracts w United Farm Workers. Young Lords Organization staged street demonstrations
Native American: protests. group "Indians of All Nations" occupied Alcatraz Island saying it was illegally seized from original inhabitants --> Red Power Movement 
Gay/Lesbian: 1969 police raid on Stonewall Inn (gathering place for homosexuals) --> gays fought back --> 5 days of rioting followed 
  • what ideas did each movement promote?
Mexican American: pride in Mexican past & new Chicano culture 
Native American: greater tribal self-gov. & restoration of economic resources 
Gay/Lesbian: gays were average Americans who ought not to be persecuted, sexual orientation is a matter of rights, power, & identity 
  • what changes did each movement achieve?
Mexican American: drew national attention to low wages & oppressive working conditions of migrant laborers --> growers agreed to contracts w UFW
Native American: tribes would win greater control over education & economic development on reservations. rising sense of self-respect = more identification as Indians 
Gay/Lesbian: gay pride marches 

U.S. from 1964-1979:
  • what major political changes took place in this period?
-conservative students emerged as a force in politics (Young Americans for Freedom (mentioned later))
-Hart-Celler act (immigration reform)
-Voting Rights act 1965: ended discrimination of voting 
Great Society
-expanded powers of fed. gov. & completed/extended social agenda, response to prosperity, improve quality of life (programs mentioned later on)
-War on Poverty: focused on equipping poor w skills & motivation
-Office of Economic Opportunity: oversaw initiatives to lift poor into social & econ. mainstream
-provided Head Start (mentioned later), job training, legal services, scholarships for poor inner cities
-Civil Rights Act of 1964: public accommodations have to be available to everyone w/o discrimination based on race
-Medicare: health insurance for people who reach the age of 65.
-Education programs: Johnson proposed legislation for scholarships, grants, work-study. Idea was that decision was to be based on whether you had the ability to excel
-Head Start: children given attention, allowed poor children to begin education
-Job Corps: training & skills for men & women who had no job opportunities
-Corporation for Public Broadcasting: source of public radio & television
-National Endowment for the Arts (NEA): government & funding support for the arts
-National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH): government support & funding for humanities programs
-Environmental programs: clear air/water/rivers acts, environmental records
-Wilderness Act of 1964: preserved large patches of wild America
1968 Democratic Convention:
-Events before the convention: 300 Americans killed in Vietnam, Robert Kennedy & Martin Luther King Jr. murdered, 125 city riots, demonstrations with Vietnamese communist flag on statue of war hero --> police responded with unrestrained & indiscriminate violence 
-Convention delegates against the Vietnam War: anti-war delegates harassed
-Colorado Point of Information: asked if Mayor could suspend police state terror
-National Guard: backed up police to keep streets clear of demonstrators using tear gas
-George McGovern: Democratic presidential nominee
-Richard Daley: Mayor of Chicago, “what are we coming to in this country?”
-Jerry Rubin: Yippie Leader, “Democratic party has blood on its hands”
-Hubert Humphrey: Vice president won nomination
-Julian Bond: young black-Georgia , nominated for Vice President, symbol of the rebellion
Watergate Scandal:
-Pentagon Papers: leaked reports proving that administrations intentionally expanded Vietnam war efforts, in contrast to what they told the public
-Richard Nixon: president
-Plumbers: covert group to halt leaks
-Enemies' List: president’s political rivals on this list, anyone who could stop his re-election
-Committee to Re-elect the President (CREP): created by Republicans, used illegal means
-Democratic National Committee Headquarters Burglary: bugged Watergate hotel to steal information
-1972 election: Nixon re-elected
-Congressional Investigations: proved connection between burglary, white house, & CREP
-White House Tapes: Nixon-installed recording devices in white house. Nixon refused to release them
-Saturday Night Massacre: Nixon dismissed attorney general, deputy, and Cox to save himself
-Gerald Ford: replaced & pardoned Nixon
  • what economic changes took place in this period?
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC): Venezuela, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia
-1973-74: oil embargo (cut of U.S. supply bc U.S. supports Israel) --> laying off workers, things that require oil increase in price, schools close in winter bc can't heat them, transportation rices rise, inflation
-de-industrialization: factories closing & send jobs overseas, Amer. jobs lost at rust belt, cities can't recover, people leave, property value decreases, young workers face lower wages: downward mobility
industry --> service economy: leads to stagflation (high unemployment & inflation at same time)
  • how did society change in this period?
Counterculture: rebel against fake-ness & un-authenticity from rock & roll, focuses on group, turn away from mainstream
-hippies: smaller group in counterculture. used LSD to reach a higher state of mind but switched to marijuana to calm down (bc of events like VN war & watergate scandal) 
-environmentalism bc NASA's picture of earth from space--> clean air act 1970 & clean water act 1972
-Stephen Gaskin's farm: religious commune
-Sheep Ridge/(Bill) Wheeler's ranch: open land commune 
-Hal Lindsey & Prophecy revelations: book- The Late Great Planet Earth (millennialism) 
Cults: strong-authoritarian central religious leader, members cut off ties w people not in the cult, irrational religious beliefs, leader exerts increasing authority. ex. Unification Church w leader Sun Young Moon, Jim Jones & the People's Temple
  • what foreign policy changes took place in this period?
-Nixon goes to China bc realized communist countries still have their own interests --> trade 
-Jimmy Carter & Human  Rights Diplomacy: don't look at the communist, look at the way they treat their people --> helping the Vietnamese boat people (of South VN) & Mariel Boat Lift Cubans (1980) --> long term effects: benefits U.S. economy bc ambitious & entrepreneurs, new businesses
-Iranian Hostage Crisis (Nov. 4, 1979-Jan. 21, 1981): Ayatollan Rhvholla Khomeini becomes leader after revolution & overthrowing of Reza Pahlavi (Shah of Iran). mad at U.S. bc they took Pahlavi to the U.S. bc he had cancer. Khomeini wants the Shah returned to be put on trial & killed but Shah dies in U.S. & Khomeini won't let go of hostages until Carter leaves office. --> Hostages released 1981

U.S. from 1980-1991:
  • explain the rise of Ronald Reagan: Carter's popularity was low bc hostage crisis. Reagan pledged to end stagflation, restore country's dominant role in the world. won support of Religious Right & conservative upholders of "family values"
  • what economic changes took place in this period? 
Reaganomics:
curtailing power of unions, dismantling regulations, radically reducing taxes.
Tax reform act: reduced rate on wealthiest Americans 
cut back on environmental protection & workplace safety rules
"supply-side economics"/ "trickle-down economics"

de-industrialization, raise in stock prices, decline of labor movement
  • social changes including religion:
  • how did society change in this period?
  • what foreign policy changes took place in this period? include end of the Cold War.
_____________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 24:
  • Los Angeles Basin: largest western suburban region, once had extensive system of trains & buses but after WWII, was replaced w freeways for cars & trucks
  • the TV world: replaced newspapers as source of information about public events, watching tv = leading leisure activity. images of middle-class life & advertisements of consumer goods. changed Amer. eating habits (frozen TV dinners), common experience for all Americans. conveyed images of the good life based on endless consumption
  • religion & anticommunism: protestant & roman catholic leaders spread anticommunism. religion vs. "godless" communism. church affiliations in the 1950s. "under God" & "in God we trust" added to pledge & money. Hollywood films celebrating religion. "Judeo-Christian" heritage 
-Billy Graham: protestant evangelist, used radio & TV to spread religious messages imbued w anticommunism
  • Milton Friedman: young economist, published Capitalism and Freedom (1962) which said the free market was necessary foundation for individual liberty , called for turning over gov. functions to private sector & repeal of minimum wage laws/graduated income tax/social security system. said gov. should not regulate the economy or individual conduct
  • modern Republicanism: Eisenhower's domestic agenda-  sever party's identification w Hoover, Great Depression, indifference to economic conditions of ordinary citizens. expanded New Deal programs, building of the 41,000 mile interstate highway system
  • Sputnik: first artificial earth satellite launched by Soviets in 1957
  • decolonization: began when India & Pakistan achieved independence, crumbling of Euro. empires
-Jacobo Arbenz Guzman: elected in Guatemala, land-reform policy that threatened domination of Guatemala's economy by American-own United Fruit company, CIA organized to oust gov.
-Mohammed Mossadegh: elected in Iran, nationalized Anglo-Iranian oil company, CIA organized to oust gov.
-Suez Canal crisis: Israel, France, Britain invaded Egypt after Gamal Abdel Nasser (country's leader) nationalized Suez canal (which was owned by Britain & France). Eisenhower forced them to abandon the invasion 
  • origins of the Vietnam war: 
-Ho Chi Minh: nationalist/communist force against French 
-France: French military try to keep their Asian empire --> Truman administration gave money to aid French efforts but did not send in troops when French asked them to --> French had to agree to Vietnamese independence 
-Ngo Dinh Diem: anticommunist south VN leader (urged by U.S.)
  • the Beats: small group of poets & writers, railed against mainstream culture, rejected middle-class culture, protest against materialism, conformism, & militarization of Amer. life by cold war. celebrated impulsive action, immediate pleasure, drugs, sexual experimentation
-Allen Ginsberg's Howl: "I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness, starving hysterical naked", protest against materialism & conformism while under influence of hallucinogenic drugs. police confiscated book & arrested bookstore owners for selling "obscene" work (later a judge overturned the ban on the grounds that it had redeeming social value)
  • League of United Latin American Citizens: (LULAC) challenged restrictive housing, employment discrimination, & segregation of Latino students
  • Mendez v. Westminster (1946): California Supreme Court order schools of Orange County desegregated 
Chapter 25:
  • Peace Corps: sent young Amer. abroad to aid in economic & educational progress of developing countries & to improve image of U.S. there 
  • Alliance for Progress: new policy toward Latin Amer., to promote political & material freedom., military regimes & local elites controlled the aid & enriched themselves while the poor saw little benefit --> failed
  • Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party: (MFDP) campaigned to take seats of state's all-white official party at 1964 Democratic national convention. Party liberals pressed for compromise: 2 black delegates would be granted seats- MFDP rejected
  • Great Society programs: provided health services to poor & elderly in new Medicaid & Medicare programs, pour federal funds into education & urban development. Department of Transportation & of Housing & Urban development, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, National Endowments for the Humanities & for the Arts, national public broadcasting network
-Head Start: early childhood education program
-VISTA: domestic version of Peace Corps for inner cities
  • Chicago freedom movement: launched by King, w demands to end discrimination by employers & unions, equal access to mortgages, integration of public housing, & construction of low-income housing. marches, sit-ins, & mass arrests were ineffective --> failed movement 
  • New Left: whites. rejection of intellectual & political categories that shaped radicalism & liberalism. challenged mainstream America. spoke of loneliness, isolation, & alienation, powerlessness in face of bureaucratic institutions & hunger for authenticity that affluence could not provide. called for democracy of citizen participation, critique of contrast btwn American values & American reality
-Port Huron statement: criticized institutions (political parties to corporations, unions, military-industrial complex), "we seek the establishment of a democracy of individual participation, [in which] the individual shares in those social decisions determining the quality and direction of his life". participatory democracy
-Students for a Democratic Society: (SDS) offshoot of socialist League for Industrial Democracy. adopted Port Huron Statement 
-Free Speech Movement: response to rule prohibiting political groups from using central area of campus to spread their ideas. protest to repeal new rule & critique structure of the university & education gearing towards corporate jobs 
  • Counterculture: rejecting values & behaviors of old generations, norms in clothing, language, sexual behavior, drug use 
-Timothy Leary: Harvard scientist turned prophet of mind-expansion, promoted use of LSD = "freedom to expand your own consciousness" 
-Jesus People: saw hippy lifestyle as authentic expression of outlook of the early church. created Christian communes, religiously oriented rock concerts
  • Latino Activism:
-Cesar Chavez: led series of nonviolent protest to pressure growers to agree to labor contracts w United Farm Workers union
-United Farm Workers Union: mass movement for civil rights as a campaign for economic betterment
-Young Lords Organization: modeled on Black Panthers, protested high unemployment rate among Puerto Ricans & lack of city services in Latino neighborhoods
  • Environmentalism:
-Rachel Carson's Silent Spring: 1962, showed effects of DDT (insecticide): killed birds & animals, caused sickness among humans. chemical & pesticide companies tried to discredit her- "part of communist plot", "hysterical", "emotional"
-Sierra Club: 1890s, to preserve forests
-Clean Air and Water Acts: to protect the environment, passed by Nixon
  • Loving v. Virginia (1967): laws prohibiting interracial marriage = unconstitutional
  • Miranda v. Arizona (1966): individual in police custody must be informed of the rights to remain silent & confer w lawyer before answering questions & must be told any statements made might be used in court 
  • Baker v. Carr (1962): est. that districts electing members of state legislatures must be equal in population, "one man, one vote"
  • Engele v. Vitale (1963): prayers & Bible readings in public schools violated first amendment 
Chapter 26:
  • Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971): (North Carolina) approved lower court's plan requiring extensive transportation of students to achieve school integration
  • Milliken v. Bradley (1974): overturned lower court order requiring Detroit's predominantly white suburbs to enter into regional desegregation plan w city's heavily minority school system --> suburban districts absolved from responsibility for integrating urban schools
  • Regentz of the University of California v. Bakke (1978): court overturned admissions program of University of California at Davis which set aside 16 of 100 places in the entering medical school class for minority students- rejected idea of fixed affirmative action quotas
  • Nixon & Detente: "cooperation", era replacing hostility of the Cold War 
-Henry Kissinger: Nixon's national security adviser & secretary of state 
-Salvador Allende & Chili: 1970, socialist elected as president --> CIA worked w Allende's opponents to destabilize the regime  --> overthrown & killed in military coup --> dictatorship: General Augusto Pinochet --> Nixon Administration continued to back Pinochet
-China visit: 1972, Nixon visited --> increase in trade btwn the 2 countries 
-Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty: (SALT) froze each country's arsenal of intercontinental missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads 
-Leonid Brezhnev: leader of Soviet Union
  • Helsinki Accords: agreement btwn U.S. & Soviet Union that recognized permanence of Europe's post-WWII boundaries, agreed to respect basic liberties of their citizens 
  • Amnesty International: pressured U.S. to try to do something to promote human rights abroad, received Nobel Peace Prize, showing human rights as international issue
  • Soviet invasion of Afghanistan: sent troops to support friendly gov. threatened by Islamic rebellion --> weakened Soviet gov. --> Carter Doctrine: declares U.S. would use military force, if necessary, to protect interests in Persian Gulf --> aided fundamentalist Muslims
  • Tax Revolt: bc of de-industrialization & declining wages 
-Proposition 13: 1978, conservatives sponsored & California voters approved a ban on further increases in property taxes. showed that level of taxation could be powerful political issue 
-Sagebrush Rebellion: grassroots movement, leaders of western states denounced control of large areas of land by the Bureau of Land Management & insisted that states themselves be given decision-making power over grazing rights, mining development, & whether public lands should be closed to fish & hunting --> rising anti-gov. sentiment 
  • PATCO Strike: union of air traffic controllers began strike in violation of federal law --> Reagan fired them all --> used military to oversee air traffic system until new controllers could be trained --> inspired private employers to do the same regarding strikes 
  • Reagan & the Cold War: denunciation of Soviet Union 
-Strategic Defense Initiative: 1983, based on developing space-based system to intercept & destroy enemy missiles (would violate the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treat of 972), persuaded NATO to introduce short-range nuclear weapons into Europe to counter Soviet.
-Grenada Invasion: sent troops to oust pro-Cuban gov.
-Lebanon civil war: sent marines as peacekeeping force btwn Christian gov. supported by Israeli forces  & Muslim insurgents --> withdrew them after bomb exploded at their barracks
-Iran-Contra Affair: secretly authorized sale of arms to Iran to secure release of American hostages held by Islamic groups (even though it was illegal) --> Middle Eastern newspaper leaked the story

Chapter 27:
  • Crisis of Communism: Gorbachev's attempts at economic reform produced chaos & policy of political openness allowed long-suppressed national & ethnic tensions to rise to the surface 
-Boris Yeltsin: Russian president, mobilized crowds in Moscow that restored Gorbachev to office 
  • Gulf War: 1990, Iraq invaded & annexed Kuwait. first post-cold war international crisis 
-Operation Desert Storm: 1991, drove Iraqi army from Kuwait 
  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): treaty negotiated by Bush that created free-trade zone consisting of Canada, Mexico, & U.S.
  • Balkan Crisis and disintegration of Yugoslavia: communist gov. collapsed --> ethnic conflict --> ethnic cleansing --> NATO stepped in
  • Americans with Disabilities Act: prohibited discrimination in hiring & promotion against persons w disabilities & required that entrances to public buildings be redesigned to ensure access for disabled 
  • Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS): fatal disease spread by sexual contact, drug use, & transfusions of contaminated blood, "spread among gays" 

Monday, May 9, 2016

i felt very photogenic this morning: 




photocreds to my friend Luna (even though i made the photos awkward): 

white flower crown headband
white lace insert A-line dress (SheInside)
brown belt 
brown/tan sandals (rue 21)

Wednesday, May 4, 2016