Friday, April 22, 2016

geometric top with open back (thrifted)
mint knitted crop-tank/cami (forever 21)
denim frayed shorts

Monday, April 18, 2016

i was asked to draw ^^him for his birthday. it was hard but i tried & it's not too bad i guess.

Tuesday, April 12, 2016

wolf crop top (pacsun)
light wash 'denim' joggers (hollister)
faux septum piercing (hot topic)

HIST 1302 exam #3 | review

Great Depression Under Hoover:
  • reasons for Great Depression: 
  1. banking practices- banks loan out $, high risk/high yield practices/ventures, could lose $ 
  2. consumer debt- easy credit --> can't pay for product --> repossessed --> overproduction
  3. deflation-gov. only prints as much money as it has gold but population increased, gold didn't. no one investing or buying = no circulation of money 
  4. workers' pay- wages were lowered during WWI but didn't get raised back up after. workers couldn't afford to buy the products that they were making --> overproduction 
  5. stock market- more people put $ in stocks, prices increase bc value increases. people buy stock on margin (put some $ down & come up w the money in a couple days). margin calls (make people pay right up instead of giving them a few days) --> don't have = bankrupt. stock prices go down, stock market crashes (Oct. 29, 1929)
  6. agricultural depression- during WWI: farmers had little competition & high prices. to help starving Euro.: gov. told farmers to make more food so they took out loans. after war: prices went down, more competition, still have to pay off loans --> foreclosures --> bankruptcy 
  7. concentration of wealth- rich have a lot of money but isn't spending bc Depression, so money isn't circulating, just staying in the top/richest
  • Hoover/conservative response to Depression: doesn't intervene bc:
  1. helping would destroy people's work ethic & they wouldn't go back to work if given $
  2. want to keep taxes low on wealthy bc wealthy will use their wealth to make jobs (but they don't bc they're keeping their money bc deflation)
  3. have to maintain a balanced budget, can't spend $ that we don't have
  4. depression is 'a crisis of confidence', people just think the economy is bad
  5. want private charities to help people out but different charities discriminate against religion & impose morality tests, discriminate on race/ethnicity, & the demand for help is greater than the supply of help
  • conditions for poor Americans: 
-bank panic: people pull money out of banks --> banks close
-apple sellers: middle class people buy apples to sell bc they think it's their fault that they don't have jobs/money. too many apple sellers --> no one buys
-breadline & soup kitchens: food is too expensive so middle class men would leave their houses to go to breadlines so that children & women could eat the food at home
-Lloyd Commission provides targeted assistance (they don't give money, they give them food/clothes/jobs/etc.)
-Farmers' Holiday Association- prices are so low so no one is making money --> boycott, farmers use tractors to block off roads, take milk to give to the poor for free since it's price is so low
-Penny auctions: farm foreclosures --> sell farm equipment, bid pennies instead of real $ to stop foreclosures
-unemployment, jobless workers (no one is hiring/no jobs available)
-evictions & foreclosures--> homeless camps (Hoovervilles
-1932-1933: people realize it's not their fault 
  • conditions for veterans:
Bonus Marchers: veterans were promised a bonus (after 25 yrs wait) but the depression hits & they want it now to survive. go to D.C. to pressure Congress to give their bonuses --> built camps to wait --> Senate says no to the bonuses --> Douglas MacArthur sent to destroy camps --> use of tear gas & fire even though it was a peaceful protest 

Great Depression, Roosevelt, & New Deal:
  • New Deal programs: (1st or 2nd New Deal?)
-relief: SHORT TERM
Emergency Banking Act: 1933 (1st New Deal) bank panics/banks closing --> creation of a bank holiday to examine books & decide which banks are solvent (good) & which are insolvent (debt, bad practices, etc.) --> solvent banks reopen, done to get people's trust in banks back
Civil Works Administration: 1933-34 (1st New Deal) put $ into already existing programs to get them up & running again (infrastructure projects that were stopped bc depression). mostly for men
Civilian Conservation Corps: 1933-1942 (1st New Deal) young men living in cities & unemployed --> sent to country side to do reforestation/ national parks. helps "white" (Mexican & Amer.) men
National Youth Administration: 1935-1942 (2nd New Deal) created good paying part time jobs (secretarial work, machinery, auto-mechanics) to keep people in high school & college. helped women, blacks, everyone
ALL NEW DEAL JOBS PAY LOWER WAGES THAN PRIVATE SECTOR JOBS (to encourage people to go back to private sector jobs so new deal jobs can help others)
-recovery: LONG TERM
Public Works Administration: 1935-1943 (2nd New Deal) large infrastructure projects. mostly lower class men (including black). didn't hire women
Works Progress Administration: 1935-1943 (2nd New Deal) hires lower & middle class, unemployed, & women. hires historians, writers (write about places to encourage tourism), musicians (preform free concerts/plays), etc. to bring to places where people haven't experienced it before
Tennessee Valley Authority: 1933-1944 (1st New Deal) build 9 dams along Tennessee river system to create jobs, electricity (hydro electric), flood control, fertilizer. REGIONAL project. hired blacks too
-reform: STRUCTURAL/ECONOMIC SYSTEM CHANGES (to avoid another Depression)
Banking Reform (bank holiday): Glass-Steagall Act 1933 (1st New Deal)

  1. requires ALL banks to be part of Federal reserve system (so they can be regulated)
  2. separate commercial (low risk banking) from investment (corporations/high risk-high yield) banking to protect commercial/us
  3. take U.S. off gold standard (to address deflation since there isn't more gold)
  4. creates Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. fed. gov. insure deposits. protects middle class
National Industrial Act: 1933 (1st New Deal) turns into National Recovery Administration. deals w factories & businesses (overproduction)
BUSINESSES: gov. sets
  1. prices (to deal w deflation)
  2. selling quota (limiting production)
  3. codes (to how to make things so they're all the same quality, eliminates competition to protect profits)
  1. 40 hr work week (hire more people to work less hrs)
  2. minimum wage (addresses poverty)
  3. section 7A of NRA allows for collective bargaining (unions)
National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act): 1935 (2nd New Deal) legalizes unions
Agriculture Adjustment Act: 1933 (1st New Deal) farms foreclosed -->  
  1. create parity prices (floor for prices- if price gets to floor price, gov. buys the food to give to poor/unemployed)
  2. overproduction- pay farmers not to grow on some acres of land --> some sharecroppers kicked out --> ends sharecropping. agribusiness bc people buying land to get paid more for not growing on it 
Rural Electrification Administration: 1936 (2nd New Deal) bring electricity to farmers/rural areas. water, landlines, internet, etc.
Social Security Act: 1935 (2nd New Deal) for elderly, bc U.S. had no programs for them (in poverty but had to work until they died) social security SYSTEM designed to address their unemployment. financed by regressive tax (taxes first $200 of income). 
4 categories excluded: 
  1. domestic servants (chefs, maids, butlers, etc. bc South didn't want them to retire/stop working)
  2. Roman Catholic Clergy (people don't like Catholics)
  3. married women who didn't work
  4. farmers & farm workers (Mexicans)
  • African Americans in the 1930s: 
Scottsboro "boys" trial: (Alabama) Ruby Bates & Victoria Price accused 9 young black men of raping them. no evidence, all white jury --> declared guilty --> appeal for new trial --> better lawyers found the women were prostitutes who specialized in sex w black men & Bates admitted nothing happened, Price still says she was raped --> 5 men still young guilty 
demand for federal anti-lynching law but Roosevelt said no bc didn't want white South to turn on him (Africans still liked Roosevelt bc New Deal gave African Amer. many benefits so voted Democrat)
"black cabinet": blacks who work for the gov. & tell Roosevelt what blacks want
Mary McLeod Bethune: was in National Youth Administration, created her own school
Daughters of the American Revolution: can trace ancestors back to before Revolutionary war. elite white upper class women. invited opera singer Marian Anderson to preform (didn't know she was black), un-invites her --> Eleanor Roosevelt (in DAR) finds out & gives Anderson a free concert for black & white audience 

Foreign policy & early WWII events:
  • American neutrality: Gerald Nye (head of Nye Commission) called people who convinced the U.S. to go to war (WWI) "merchants of death" (thinks wealthy banks/corporations loaned money to British & French & wanted to go to war to make sure they get repaid). affects U.S. foreign policy --> neutrality so that we don't go to war
  • Good neighbor policy: U.S. will not invade countries in Western Hemisphere (try to have good relations to try to resume trade w them to help w economy)
  • events from 1933-1941 in Europe: 
Tydings- McDuffie Act: 10 yr plan to let Filipinos be independent (to cut down costs)
Adolph Hitler & German Fascism (believe in centralized authority/dictator, against democracy, put nation ahead of individuals, control over everything, suppression of opposition w terror, aggressive nationalism & racism)
  1. stopped war reparations (in treaty of Versailles)
  2. rearmed Germany (built up army w ^ $)
  3. reoccupied Ruhr valley (w ^ army)
Anschluss: German annexation of Austria (1938)
German annexation of Sudetenland (1938): (they speak German there). British & French allow them to annex it bc Germany said they'll stop after
German annexation of Czechoslovakia (1938) British & French realize they have to go to war (thinking that Soviets would help)
Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact (Aug. 1939)
Invasion of Poland (Sept. 1, 1939): fake border incident created by Germany. British & French start mobilizing
Phony War (Oct. 1939- May 1940) British & French still hoped they wouldn't have to go to war
Cash & Carry program (1939-1940): a step away neutrality, U.S. can sell materials to British & French but they have to pay cash (no loans) & have to carry it home themselves 
German Blitzkrieg Spring Offensive (1940): phony war ends, French conquered by Germans
Military Draft Act (1940): 1st peacetime draft. 1 million men drafted, military budget increases
Battle of Britain (1940-41): Germans bomb British to destroy their morale so they can invade
Lend-Lease program (1941-45): prez. can "lend" war materials to allied nations. Roosevelt uses fireside chat to get people/Congress to agree
German invasion of Soviet Union (1941) 
Atlantic Naval battles: shoot at any German ships
  • events from 1931-1941 in Asia: 
Japan invades Manchuria (of China)
Fake border incident--> (1937) invaded China
Rape of Nanking (1937): Japanese air raid, systematic rape of women, force men to dig their own graves
U.S. partial embargo on Japan: stop trading petroleum & scrap metal (looks as if U.S. isn't neutral)
Japan attacks European colonies in Asia bc German attacked Europe already 
U.S. total embargo & freezes Japanese $ in banks
Japanese air attack on Pearl Harbor (Dec. 7, 1941): destroy Amer. pacific fleets, west coast= vulnerable 
U.S. declaration of war against Japan (Dec. 8, 1941)

Soviet Union (non-aggression pact)

French (they were conquered by Germany)
Soviet Union (Germany invaded them)
China (Japan invaded them)

World War II (1941-1945):
  • home front economic conditions:
gov. built housing for war workers
civilian industries forced to retool for war production
wartime patriotism
urged to buy war bonds, guard against revealing military secrets, grown 'victory gardens' to allow food to be sent to the army
rationing of scarce consumer items (coffee, meat, gas)
women at work
gov. marketed billions of dollars' worth of war bonds, increased taxes, practice of withholding income tax directly from paychecks
class taxation --> mass taxation
housing shortages bc many go north for factory jobs 
nothing to buy (bc military economy) = save $
created new industrial centers
federal spending went to largest corporations (that created war materials instead)
in south, shift from agricultural --> industrial employment
unions were recognized
no strikes pledge
government economic programs created
  • government economic programs:
  1. War Production Board: rank product importance (products needed for war > civilian products), allocate materials, cost plus contracts (guarantee to pay for cost of item production & profit), creates new industries (synthetic rubber), consolidation
  2. National War Labor Board: raise wages, allow organization of labor unions. limitations: no strike pledge (during war), safety standards go down bc doing what's needed to win war
  3. Office of Price Administration: designed to prevent inflation- set prices, ration consumer products, prioritizing products
  • economic changes the war brought:
government spending increased
unemployment went down
changed U.S. from civilian economy to a military economy/production
  • economic changes for blacks, Latinos, women:
black migrants got on "liberty trains" & sought jobs in industrial heartland
angry white residents forced authorities to evict black tenants
race riot in Detroit (mentioned later on)
'hate strike': workers protested upgrading of black employees in plant manufacturing aircraft engines
war: segregated units
tried to use G.I. Bill- local authorities who administered its provisions allowed southern black veterans to use education benefits only at segregated colleges, limited job training to unskilled work & low-wage service jobs
Executive order 8802 (mentioned later on)

Bracero program (mentioned later on)
new Chicano culture (fusion of Mexican heritage & American experience)
rise in inter-ethnic marriages 
"zoot suit" riots (mentioned later on)
Caucasian Race- Equal Privileges Resolution

women at work

struggle against Nazi tyranny & theory of a 'master race' discredited ethnic & racial inequality
racism & nativism stripped of intellectual respectability (outside of the South), viewed as psychological disorders
Hollywood portrayed fighting units w members of different backgrounds & race putting aside differences for common cause
by end of war, new immigrant groups accepted as loyal ethnic Americans
  • anti-Japanese propaganda & government actions about Japanese-Americans:
Japan attacked us = main enemy
Issei (immigrants, can't be naturalized), Nissei (their children, native born)
Executive order 9066: round up Japanese- Amer. & put in internment camps
men come first & forced to build camps then women & children come. communal living
Korematsu v. U.S. (1944) Supreme Courts side w executive order 9066 bc Japanese "posed clear & present danger"
est. loyalty oath program, expecting Japanese-Amer. to swear allegiance 
442nd infantry: Japanese-Amer., volunteers, most heavily decorated in WWII
  • major turning point military events:
War in Pacific (1942-1945): (Asian theater) British + Amer. vs. Japanese. goals:
  1. stop Japanese expansion
  2. secure West coast of U.S.
  3. keep Hawaii from being invaded (it's a naval base)
  4. protect Australia & New Zealand from invasion (staging ground for army)
  5. achieve equality btwn Japanese & Amer. navy (destroy Japanese ships, military equipment)
Battles of Coral sea (May 1942) & Midway (June 1942): naval & air battle, outcomes: achieved ^
pushed back Japanese
North Africa Campaign: British + Amer. vs. Germany. goals/outcomes:
  1. ensure access to Mediterranean sea (to supply Soviets bc allies now) 
  2. trade w Soviets^
  3. oil (so that Germany can't gain access)
  4. will British & Amer. armies fight well together? (yes)
  5. invasion of Italy if control North Africa
  6. General Dwight Eisenhower: really good general
War in Europe (1942-1945): Germany vs. Soviets:
Battle of Stalingrad (Aug. 1942-Feb. 1943)- Hitler wanted to capture Stalingrad, siege (Germans surrounded Soviets & let them die of starvation/cold/disease). Soviets bring supplies behind Germans & Soviets in siege revolt --> siege broken --> German retreat 
Operation Overlord- objectives:
  1. create separate fronts in Europe
  2. liberate countries that Germany conquered
  3. stop Soviet expansion
D-day invasion: (June 6, 1944): new technology created, use of espionage (created 'phantom army' to attack elsewhere = redirection). American, British and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of France’s Normandy region, liberated France
V-E day: (victory in Europe) May 8, 1945- Germany surrendered bc operation overlord

war isn't over- still fighting Japan!!!!!
  • how did the war end?
Allies closing in on Okinawa island (but Japanese civilians kill themselves). important bc preview of how fighting Japan will be like 

new technology: Atomic bomb --> tell Japan to "unconditionally surrender" (allies can do whatever they want to do with Japan) but Japan refuses unless they can keep their emperor (allies say no) --> Hiroshima atomic bombing (Aug. 6, 1945), Nagasaki atomic blast (Aug. 9, 1945) --> V-J day (Aug. 14, 1945) victory in Japan

1950s social conditions: decade of the “baby boom”
  • white families & children:
suburbs/Levittowns- away from the city. perfect to raise children, life revolved around the children
married younger, divorced less frequently, had more children
family life was physically separated from work, relatives, & social organizations 
worked part-time to help support family's middle-class lifestyle, not to help pull it out of poverty or pursue personal fulfillment or independent career
remained at home, marriage is their 'most important goal'
girls: taught to want a life like their mothers', ideas of being housewives, getting married
boys: work hard for money, follow fathers' footsteps
Ozzie & Harriet image: "American Family" = happy & behave as they're supposed to
Rules for living:
  1. obey authority- don't ask questions
  2. control your emotions
  3. fit in with the group- conform, don't stand out
  4. don't even think about having sex
  • black families & children:
didn't really live in suburbs, moved from South to North
racial barriers in housing, public education, & jobs
segregation in schools: separate but NOT equal. mission was for black kids to get a good education to better themselves & their society
Little Rock: 1957, soldiers of 101st airborne division escorted nine black children into the school
Brown v. Board of Education (1954): 5 cases of unequal funding of schools combined. segregation was unequal bc it stigmatized one group as unfit to associate w others. ruled segregation in public education violated equal protection of laws guaranteed by 14th amendment. in the field of edu., "separate but equal" has no place
  • red scare & communist menace:
some of those who warned of a growing “red menace” during the 1930s feared Soviet influence
church affiliations bc communism is "godless"
"Judeo-Christian" heritage (Catholics, Jews, Protestants shared same history & values)
HUAC- went after Hollywood, scientists, professors/teachers, etc. & if they wouldn't talk/admit, they were blacklisted
  • rebels against society:
-panic of "juvenile delinquency": adults alarmed at teenage culture that rejected middle-class norms
-rock-and-roll music: kids use to distance themselves from parents, weird/new/different. act of rebellion. sexually provocative movements of black musicians & dancers--> Elvis Presley (white)
-The Beats: small group of poets & writers railed against mainstream culture. rejecting work ethic, materialism of suburban middle class, militarization of American life by the Cold War. celebrated impulsive action, immediate pleasure, drugs, sexual experimentation

Red Scare in U.S.:
  • how red scare emerged: 
after war, U.S. was the only place w cities intact, civilians alive, factories still producing. people were scared that the Depression would come back. Soviets & the U.S. were strongest. the U.S. was strong so believed that only way U.S. could be weakened would be internally --> Federal Bureau of Investigation & J. Edgar Hoover: search for those who could be communist spies
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC): investigated for communism
  • what politicians did to foster the red scare:
Republicans tried to use Red Scare to move people away from the Democrats 
most used anti-communist language to discredit labor and social activism and New Deal policies
anti-Communists were sometimes aided by liberals and leftists whose primary fear was fascist subversion
  • how did american society react to it:
America is right, communism is evil/immoral/wrong
Duck & cover: drills/tests in case of atomic war (schools taught children what to do)
many middle class families built fallout shelters in hopes of surviving an atomic bomb
literature about survival tactics was widely distributed
  • Hiss-Chambers:
Alger Hiss (worked for state department under Roosevelt then became an editor): accused of being a communist spy by Whitaker Chambers (former communist spy but 'converted') who said Hiss gave him secret gov. documents to pass to agents of Soviet Union. HUAC brings Hiss in & he denies being a spy. Republicans arrest him for perjury bc he lied about being communist under oath

Cold War 1945- 1953:
  • how did it develop? 
after the war, the strongest countries were the Soviet Union & U.S.
United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power
extended military & financial aid to the countries of Western Europe 
created the NATO alliance
  • what ideas underlay it?
freedom vs. totalitarianism 
  • what major events took place in this phase?
the Fair Deal
Taft-Hartley act 1947 (mentioned later on)
desegregation of armed forces
formation of States' Rights Democratic Party (Dixiecrats) & Progressive Party (Wallace)
Truman's election win in 1948
loyalty review system
HUAC's hearings about communist influence in Hollywood
the Spy Trials- Hiss & Chambers, Julius & Ethel Rosenburg (convicted of conspiracy to pass atomic bomb secrets to Soviets)
Dennis v. U.S. (mentioned later)

Chapter 21: 
  • Dust Bowl: period of unusually dry weather/drought + mechanized agriculture pulverizing topsoil & killing grass --> erosion, wind blowing soil away/ "Dust" bowl
  • John Steinback's The Grape of Wrath: novel, capturing plight of a dispossessed family going from Oklahoma to California
  • Federal Housing Administration: insured millions of long-term mortgages issued by private banks, home ownership came within reach
  • 21st amendment: repealed Prohibition
  • Security & Exchange Commission: regulated stock & bond markets
  • John L. Lewis: head of United Mine Workers, led walkout that produced a new labor organization- CIO
  • Congress of Industrial Organizations: set out to create unions in the main bastions of the American economy, aimed to secure economic freedom & industrial democracy for Amer. workers- a share in the wealth produced by their labor & a voice about working conditions
  • United Auto Workers: fledgling CIO union, Dec. 1936: sit-down (stopped production but stayed inside)
  • sit-down strike at General Motors: sit-downs spread to GM, workers fought off police who tried to storm in. strikers cleaned the plant, oiled machinery, prepared meals, etc. Feb. 11: Gm agreed to negotiate w UAW
  • Huey Long: embodied Louisiana's Populist & Socialist traditions, won election as governor (1928) & was in U.S. senate (1930). built roads, schools, hospitals & increased tax on oil companies. launched "Share Our Wealth" movement, called for confiscation of most of the wealth of the richest Americans to finance grant/job/annual income for all citizens. was going to run for president but was assassinated
  • Aimee Semple McPherson: Los Angeles revivalist, broadcasted sermons on radio station, sermons used elaborate sets, costumes, etc.
  • Father Charles Coughlin: "radio priest", attracted listeners w weekly broadcasts attacking Wall Street bankers & greedy capitalists. criticized FDR bc failure of New Deal to promote social justice. Antisemitism & support for European fascism
  • Rural Electrification Agency: bring electric power to homes that lacked it (farms) to enable more Americans to buy household appliances (one of New Deal's most successful programs)
  • Wagner act: brought democracy into workplace by empowering National Labor Relations Board to supervise elections in which employees voted on union representation. outlawed unfair labor practices/firing/blacklisting union organizers
  • Alfred Landon: Kansas governor, chosen by Republicans as Roosevelt's opponent. former Theodore Roosevelt Progressive. denounced Social Security as threat to individual liberty
  • Indian Reorganization Act of 1934: ended policy of dividing Indian lands into small plots for individual families & selling off the rest 
  • Grand Coulee Dam: built on Columbia River, flooded where Indians hunted/fished but irrigation water was not made available to reservations
  • Popular Front: period during mid-1930s when Communist Party tried to ally itself w socialists & New Dealers in movements for social change, urging reform of capitalist system rather than revolution. Communists gained respectability
Chapter 22:
  • Four Freedoms: popular paintings during WWII by Norman Rockwell, essential human freedoms: freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, & freedom from fear
  • Road to War:
-China: Japan invaded Manchuria (province of norther China) then went further. massacred many Chinese prisoners of war & civilians in Nanjing/Nanking
-Benito Mussolini: Italian leader, founder of fascism, invaded & conquered Ethiopia
-Francisco Franco & Spanish Civil War: led uprising (1936) against democratically elected government of Spain, established another fascist government in Euro.
-Appeasement: hoped agreeing to Hitler's demands would prevent war (adopted by Britain & France). Neville Chamberlain used to give Hitler the Sudetenland 
  • Isolationism: 1930s version of Americans' desire to avoid foreign entanglements
  • Neutrality Acts: banned travel on belligerents' ships & sale of arms to countries at war (to help U.S. avoid conflicts over freedom of the seas)
  • Holocaust: "final solution"- mass extermination of 'undesirable' peoples (Slavs, gypsies, homosexuals, Jews), result of belief that Germans had a "master race" destined to rule world
  • Wartime Manufacturing: war materials built in American factories, gov. sponsored (offered low interest loans, tax concessions, contracts w profits) 
  • Office of War Information: 1942, created to mobilize public opinion. used radio, film, press, etc. to give meaning to conflict of WWII
  • Women at Work: during war, women were mobilized to fill vacant industrial jobs (since men were fighting). women encouraged to go to work, glorified for being independent. forced unions to confront issues of equal pay for equal work, maternity leave, & childcare facilities
-Rosie the Riveter: female industrial laborer, shown as muscular & self-reliant in Rockwell's magazine cover
  • National Resources Planning Board: 1942 & 1943 reports: offered blueprint for peacetime economy based on full employment, expanded welfare state, widely shared Amer. standard of living . called for "new bill of rights" including all Amer. in expanded Social security system, access to education, health care, housing, jobs, etc. plan for "full-employment economy"
  • Economic Bill of Rights: (Roosevelt, 1944) expand power of original Bill of Rights to secure full employment, adequate income, medical care, education. Congress did not enact it
  • Bracero Program: tens of thousands of contract laborers crossed into U.S. to take jobs as domestic & agricultural workers. designed as temporary response to wartime labor shortage
  • Zoot Suit Riots: club-wielding sailors & police attacked Mexican-Amer. youths wearing flamboyant clothing on streets of L.A., illustrated limits of wartime tolerance
  • Caucasian Race- Equal Privileges Resolution: since all the nations of the North & South American continents were united in struggle against Nazism, all persons of the Caucasian race were entitled to equal treatment in places of public accommodation (TX law had defined Mexicans as white so it applied to them). lacked enforcement mechanism 
  • Navajo "code talkers": transmitted messages for U.S. in their complex native language so that Japanese could not decipher them (Indians)
  • Detroit Race Riot: fight at Detroit city park turned into race riot (1943), 34 dead
  • Executive Order 8802: (Roosevelt) banned discrimination in defense jobs & est. Fair Employment Practices Commission to monitor compliance 
  • Double V campaign: phrase that symbolized black attitudes during the war. victory over Germany & Japan must be accompanied by victory over segregation at home
  • Smith v. Allwright (1944): Supreme Court outlawed all-white primaries (one of the ways southern states deprived blacks of political rights)
  • Pan Africa Congresses: attended by black intellectuals from U.S., Caribbean, Europe, & Africa. denounced colonial rule of Africa, sought to est. sense of unity among all people in African diaspora 
  • Bretton Woods Agreement: replaced British pound with the dollar as main currency for international transactions. reestablished link btwn dollar & gold. created 2 Amer.-dominated financial institutions: World Bank & The International Monetary Fund. created framework for postwar capitalist economic system, based on a freer international flow of goods & investment & recognition of U.S. as world's financial leader
-World Bank: provide money to developing countries & help rebuild Euro.
-International Monetary Fund: work to prevent governments from devaluing currencies to gain advantage in international trade

Chapter 23: 
  • Iron Curtain speech: Winston Churchill (Britain's former wartime prime minister) declared an iron curtain had descended across Euro., dividing the free west & communist east. Popularized idea of long-term struggle btwn U.S. & Soviets
  • Berlin blockade & airlift: Soviets cut off road & rail traffic so Western planes supplied fuel & food to their zone of the city through airlift
  • United Nations' universal declaration of human rights: principles so fundamental that no gov. has right to violate them
  • Fair Deal: Truman's domestic task regarding transition from wartime to peacetime economy, focused on improving social safety net & raising standard of living. called on Congress to increase minimum wage, enact program of national health insurance, expand public housing, Social security, & aid to edu.
  • Taft-Hartley Act: 1947, sought to reverse some gains made by organized labor in past decade. made it more difficult to bring unorganized workers into unions, contributed to decline of organized labor's share of nation's workforce
  • Jackie Robinson: Brooklyn Dodgers, major league baseball. dignity in face of constant verbal abuse won him nationwide respect. Rookie of the year award. opened door to integration of baseball
  • Dennis v. U.S. (1951): Supreme Court upheld jailing of communist party leaders even though charges concerned their beliefs, not their actions
  • loyalty & conformity: anti-communist crusade promoted new definition: anything other than "uncritical & unquestioning acceptance of America as it is" = unpatriotic
  • McCarran-Walter Act: 1952, passed over prez.'s veto. kept immigration quotas in place. authorized deportation of immigrants I.D.'d as communists (even if they were citizens)
The Cold War (1945-1950)
  • George Kennan & containment: (American Diplomat) telegram laying foundation for policy or containment, where U.S. commits itself to prevent further expansion of Soviet power
  • Truman Doctrine: est. guiding spirit of Amer. foreign policy, set a precedent for Amer. assistance to anti-communist regimes throughout the world
  • Domino Theory: if one country in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect
  • Marshall Plan: offered positive vision to go along w containment, European Recovery Program, American initiative to aid Western Europe, envisioned a New Deal for Europe
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): North Atlantic Treaty Organization (U.S., Canada, ten western Euro. nations), pledging mutual defense against any future Soviet attack
  • "losing" China: communists victorious in China- Republicans assailed for having 'lost' China
  • NSC-68: (National Security Council Report 68) 1950 manifesto, described Cold war as epic struggle, helped spur dramatic increase in Amer. military spending. provided the blueprint for the militarization of the Cold War from 1950 to the collapse of the Soviet Union at the beginning of the 1990s

Friday, April 8, 2016

burgundy beanie (forever 21)
hooded flannel (ross)
black tank top (forever 21)
pierce the veil "ptv" necklace (hot topic)
rolled up jeggings
maroon vans

Tuesday, April 5, 2016

All Time Low's "Missing You" Official Music Video is here!

if any of you guys know me, you'd know that i love love love all time low. their music is absolutely special & totally relatable, in my opinion. their song "Missing You" is definitely one of the more relatable songs that i've heard from their newest album (Future Hearts) so give it a listen: 

this music video made my heart happy. all time low is such a great band who loves their fans so much & just want to give their fans something more. in the music video, they talked to fans to thank them for their support & they got to hear how their music changed their fans' lives. if you don't listen to them, or have never heard of them, you should definitely check them out. some of their more popular songs (songs that you might have heard before but just didn't know who sang them) are: "Dear Maria, Count Me In", "A Love Like War" (ft. Vic Fuentes from Pierce the Veil), or "Damned If I Do Ya (Damned If I Don't)". definitely check out those songs too if you haven't yet! all time low's lyrics are so real & relatable to me, especially to this song. it's kind of about those lonely feelings that we all get, finding yourself, staying true to yourself, & knowing there's always someone there for you.

"I heard that you've been
Self-medicating in the quiet of your room,
Your sweet, suburban tomb.
And if you need a friend,
I'll help you stitch up your wounds.

I heard that you've been
Having some trouble finding your place in the world.
I know how much that hurts,
But if you need a friend
Then please just say the word

You've come this far,
You're all cleaned up,
You've made a mess again,
There's no more trying,
Time to sort yourself out

Hold on tight,
This ride is a wild one,
Make no mistake,
The day will come when you can't cover up what you've done,
Now don't lose your fight, kid,
It only takes a little push to pull on through,
With so much left to do,
You'll be missing out, and we'll be missing you.

I heard that you've been
Having some trouble finding your place in the world.
I know how much that hurts,
And if you need a friend
Then please just say the word

You've come this far,
You're all cleaned up,
You've made a mess again,
There's no more trying,
Time to sort yourself out

Hold on tight,
This ride is a wild one,
Make no mistake,
The day will come when you can't cover up what you've done,
Now don't lose your fight, kid,
It only takes a little push to pull on through,
With so much left to do,
You'll be missing out, and we'll be missing you.

Grit your teeth, pull your hair,
Paint the walls black and scream, "Fuck the world
'Cause it's my life, I'm gonna take it back, "
And never for a second blame yourself.

Hold on tight,
This ride is a wild one,
Make no mistake,
The day will come when you can't cover up what you've done,
(No, you can't cover up)
(One, two, three, four!)

Hold on tight,
This ride is a wild one (This ride is a wild one),
Make no mistake,
The day will come when you can't cover up what you've done,
Now don't lose your fight, kid (Don't lose your fight, kid),
It only takes a little push to pull on through (push to pull on through),
With so much left to do
You'll be missing out, and we'll be missing you"

Friday, April 1, 2016

white pocket tee (forever 21)
geometric black & white shorts (thrifted)
ptv necklace (hot topic)