Thursday, March 10, 2016

HIST 1302 exam #2 | review

Darwinism: 1870-1920
idea of natural selection, adaptation, evolution from Charles Darwin
Herbert Spencer- "survival of the fittest"- applied ideas to human institutions
  • beliefs in social Darwinism including laissez-faire capitalism:
William Graham Sumner believed traditions emerge bc that's how society organized it
concept of social evolution based on individual competition
corporations emerged bc better adapted to environment
laissez-faire capitalism= saw freedom as the right of individuals to pursue their economic interests w/o outside restraint, "hands off" gov.
eugenics movement: your genetics make you better
Madison Grant's "The Passing of the Great Race" some white people/groups are superior to others
Henry Ward Beecher: (protestant) believed more $ = more moral (old puritan idea)
^Beecher-Tilton scandal (affair)
  • beliefs in reform Darwinism including the social Gospel movement:
humans better than animals bc have mind/soul
mind --> we can control our environment --> we can control what happens to us
change environment through education --> help immigrants improve themselves
recognized that the fittest could be those who cooperated with each other
settlement houses: teach kids middle class values
Jane Addams & Hull House: advocates for lower class, fundraising & donates $ for settlement houses
Washington Gladden: (protestant) --> social Gospel movement= originated effort to reform Protestant churches by expanding appeal & making them more attentive to era's social ills. applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice. christian duty to help others to improve society/environment
Charles Sheldon (minister in social gospel movement) book: "In His Steps"- idea: WWJD?

Progressivism: 1890-1920
  • why develop? 
  1. reform Darwinism & social gospel movement
  2. panic of 1893: people realize others aren't poor bc they're lazy. no jobs, depression, etc.
  3. muckrakers (usually socialists) & muckraking journalism: talking about problems in Amer. society- printed magazines, journals, etc. 
  • who believed/benefited?
middle class people bc it gives them more power. wanted direct gov. action to solve problems. wanted gov. to regulate corporations, not own them (like socialists would want)

  • political progressive reforms (changes to the political system itself):
voter registration laws: kept people from voting- disfranchises lower class/poor
poll tax: tax on right to vote, cumulative
literacy test: could make someone read a hard or easy part of the constitution depending on if the registrar likes them/ wants them to vote (targeted republicans bc that's what part the blacks supported)
grandfather clause: if your grandfather in 1860 can vote, you can too (so that democrats who couldn't read could still vote)
secret ballot: you have to be literate to vote bc don't get help. disfranchises lower class who don't know how to vote/mark ballots correctly
16th amendment: 1913, income tax (provides stable $ source, designed to tax upper class)
17th amendment: direct election of senators (the people pick)
  • economic progressive reforms (changes to society, especially women):
Sherman anti-trust act 1890: prohibits business activities that federal government regulators think are anti-competitive, prevent the artificial raising of prices by restriction of trade or supply. used against unions
trust-busting: Theodore Roosevelt (progressive republican) becomes president, doesn't like how monopolies affect consumers --> break (bad) monopolies to create competition
Upton Sinclair: muckraker- socialist. writes "The Jungle" (1906) about meat packing industry --> gov. investigation --> meat inspection act 1906: gov. regulator make sure animals that are slaughtered are healthy 
pure food & drug act: ban manufacture, sale, & transportation of adulterated (adding non-food to product to make it "more"), misbranded (ex. selling cat meat as other meat), or harmful food/drugs/liquors 
Harrison act 1906:  ban sale of narcotics & opiates
federal reserve act 1913: Woodrow Wilson = president at the time. act created federal reserve system --> federal reserve banks -->
  1. regulated currency/stabilized inflation & deflation
  2. regulate banking system (stopped speculation ??)
  3. oversee interest rates (lower/raise bc inflation/deflation)
child labor reform: children 15 & under working in textile, news, mining may be major source of income for some families. progressives think children need to be in school --> laws limiting work hours for children --> corporations file lawsuits --> supreme court says can't regulate children's hours bc it's a contract btwn corporation & child
women's labor: limit hours women work
Muller v. Oregon 1908: Oregon passes 10 hr limit, 6 days a week for women. Muller (laundry owner) files lawsuit --> Florence Kelly (of National consumers' union) & Louis Brandeis (Jewish progressive) write a defense of Oregon law --> judicial activism: set aside old precedent, things have changed --> sup. crt agrees w Oregon. --> limited hours for women
international ladies' garment workers' union: companies have to stop charging rent on sewing machines & increase pay
Rose Scheiderman: worked in garment industry. strike leader. reach out to middle class consumers so that strike is stronger --> strike wins bc well organized, play to the audience, middle class
clothing reform: changed from corsets, bustles, no ankles, restricting clothes --> clothes that make it easier to be mobile so women can play golf, tennis, ride bikes, etc.
Victoria Woodhull: 1st female stockbroker, "free love" has a newspaper: attacks sexual double standard
Margaret Sanger: saw it was a problem that women couldn't control how many babies they were having --> gave women diaphragms, taught sex ed/sent out basic reproductive info in mail (only to married women) --> men didn't like this --> arrested for "sending porn" 
her organization changes names to planned parenthood
settlement  houses= social progressivism
national american women suffrage association: want right to vote so that can reform society:
  1. it's only fair
  2. women pay taxes too
  3. they're citizens
  4. they follow laws like men do
^people don't agree bc women aren't in the military, juries, or in a "posse" & they don't need the right to vote bc  they have male relatives who "can vote for them"
1913, woman suffrage parade in Washington D.C.: women from all states in parade, are attacked & arrested
suffragists: moderate/lobbying
suffragettes: radicals, fight back

Imperialism: 1865-1917
territorial expansion
  • anti-imperialism: 
    1. racism: (south) non-whites shouldn't be in the states
    2. expense of an empire: would cost a lot- democrats didn't want that
    3. senator George Hoar: says it will create classicism/ some people "belonging to U.S." won't have rights 
  • imperialism: "need it" bc:
  1. markets for exports 
  2. Alfred Thayer Mahan's "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History" (U.S. needs fueling stations- islands- for ships)
  3. religion: protestant christian missionaries (Josiah Strong)
  4. social Darwinism: Albert Beveridge 
William Mckinley = president 1896: won  & sees it as the people want to be an empire
insular cases 1901: people of annexed territory file court case saying they're americans. court rules that the"constitution doesn't follow the flag"- U.S. owns the territory but they're not citizens
  • Spanish-American war: what happened? effects? 
Cuban struggle won u.s.'s support. 1898- yellow press blamed Spain for U.S.S. Maine. Spain rejected ceasefire--> Mckinley asked congress to declare war. purpose: to help Cuban patriots in struggle for "liberty & freedom" -->  U.S. also supported the ongoing struggle of Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines for independence against Spanish rule --> conflict --> navy defeated Spanish fleet May 1--> another victory July --> Treaty of Paris
  • Philippine-american war: what happened? effects?
Mckinley decided to retain possession of islands, Filipino movement turned against u.s. --> war --> reports of what american troops did tarnished nation's self-image --> McKinley administration said its aim was to "uplift & civilize & Christianize" them 
  • panama canal: what happened? effects?
Colombia refused to cede land--> Roosevelt set in motion uprisings--> helped Panama become independent from Colombia--> get to create canal that links Atlantic & Pacific ocean--> William Crawford Gorgas understood mosquitoes & told them how to get rid of them so that people building canals wouldn't die --> reduced sea voyage
  • mexico: what happened? effects?
under Mexican president Porfirio Diaz, Amer. companies controlled mining, rubber, & oil in Mexico. Mexicans have built up resentment --> Mexican Revolution 1911-1920 --> many Mexicans leave to U.S. --> General Victoriano Huerta resents Amer. --> passes law: foreign ships have to have permission before landing --> 1914 U.S.S. dolphin lands w/o permission --> arrested 
U.S. @ Vera Cruz: attacked 
Argentina, Brazil, & Cuba step in to prevent war btwn Amer. & Mexico
General Francisco "Pancho" Villa doesn't like Amer. bc they control Mexico so much --> attacked New Mexico & went back to Mexico --> U.S. asks president Venustiano Carranza to invade, he lets them --> General John "Black Jack" Pershing can't find Pancho Villa & shoots other Mexican civilians --> Carranza forces them out --> U.S. sends national guard to border to defend from Mexican attacks & shoots everyone bc don't know different btwn Mexicans & Mexican-Amer.
  • China & Hawaii:
Hawaii lay astride shipping routes to market of China 
already had Chinese workers
Hawaii became traditional territory- became Amer. citizens & admitted as a state
First World War: 1914-1918

allies: France, Russia, great Britain
central powers: Germany, Austro-Hungarian empire, ottoman empire
  • american foreign policy btwn 1914-1916 (before U.S. entry into war):
neutrality- not involved (though they favor the allies bc the french have been their ally since forever & the British share a similar language & culture)
neutral shipping rights: trade ties must precede war, can't trade "war materials" (but anything can be a war material)
  • american military personnel during war: 
segregated- Americans thought whites needed more training so gave black troops to France
369th infantry: most heavily decorated for bravery, fought longer than whites, treated as equals by British & French
  • conduct of war 1917-1918:
British stop Amer. ships from trading w Germany, can only trade w them
British are cutting communication so Americans don't know about ^
Germany creates U-boats (submarines) to attack British ships (element of surprise) but war rules: civilian ship has to be WARNED by war ship that they're going to attack --> unrestricted submarine warfare --> sinking of Lusitania (1915) --> Germany stops unrestricted warfare to please America
  • conditions at home during war:
preparedness campaign:
  1. build up army & navy supplies
  2. need officers (who have college degrees)--> PT on college campuses 
  3. patriotic education (talks good about U.S.) to convince immigrants to fight for U.S.
no one wants war --> U.S. congress declares war on Apr. 4, 1917 bc:
  1. Germans announce they're going back to unrestricted sub. warfare 
  2. Zimmerman telegram: Germany sends message to Mexico saying they'll help take back the lost territory if they invade America
  3. Russian Czar Nicholas II is thrown out--> Parliamentary government
  4. Germany sinks 5 Amer. ships in 1 week
selective service act: 18-35, 1/3 of men = unfit to fight bc:
  1. punctured eardrum/flat feet/etc.
  2. too thin/undernourished --> diseases & high STD rate
  3. IQ tests to determine jobs
espionage act 1917: prevents from criticizing gov., military, etc. in print
sedition act 1917: no false or scandalous talk about gov., restricts freedom of speech
Schenk v. U.S. 1919 --> civil rights can be denied/ abridged if it poses "clear & present danger"
100% Americanism, Super patriotism: unquestioning blind loyalty to gov. --> attacks on socialists (who don't support war), Quakers (who don't fight) & German-Americans
Robert Prager- spoke English w German accent = "spy"--> attacked & hanged --> "not guilty" bc "patriotic murder"
  • conditions for american soldiers:
military training camps: white zones of "purity" = keep out bad influences --> leads to high syphilis & gonorrhea rates--> changes men's sexual standards & marriage views

Lloyd Stanley: in NY where many soldiers & sailors are for Camp Mills
"mass production" of soldiers = industrialism 

Stull Holt: Verdun attack, roads packed w traffic, guns, etc., use of gas & shells 

Albert Smith: gas & machine guns, no bath, battle in Argenne Forest. 3rd Tenn. Infantry: black regiment
  • conditions when war ended: prohibition, woman suffrage, etc.:
18th amendment: prohibition- bans manufacture/sale/transport of brewed (beer), fermented (wine), & distilled (liquor) beverages. doesn't ban drinking it
^ why?
  1. wasting food by turning into alcohol
  2. beer comes from Germany
  3. if [not drinking] is good enough for the soldiers, it's good enough for civilians
Volstead act: can't drink alcohol= amount consumed goes down 50% bc drinking changed:
before- drinking was part of an event, after- drinking WAS the event. people went out to get drunk --> public intoxication increases
before- people drank deer & wine, after- drink hard liquor bc sellers can make more money 
Al Capone & organized crime: selling illegal alcohol

women's suffrage: they argued that they "went to war" bc they contributed since it was a total war
19th amendment: right to vote regardless of sex/gender

strikes in 1919: (bc during WW1, they worked for less bc patriotic duty but now they want better wages & bc inflation)
-Seattle general strike: dock workers + other unions walk off job--> shuts down whole city
-Boston police strike: police in poverty, no to pay rise --> strike --> Calvin Coolidge sends national guard to break up strike

wall street bombing 1919: Wallstreet = symbol of capitalism--> 36 mail bombs--> people think it's the Bolsheviks --> red scare
  • development of the Red Scare & it's effects:
1917- Bolshevik revolution: Russians are promised that they'll end the war
Bolsheviks are communists (think that gov. should own all property), atheists (want to eliminate religion bc it creates a false divide btwn classes), & dictators 
fear that they're coming to Amer. --> paranoid about socialists, anarchists, & labor union supporters 
Palmer raids led by A. Mitchell Palmer (attorney general) & J. Edgar Hoover (FBI): arrested over 6000 people w/o warrant & no bail--> put on "Soviet ark" & sent to Russia. unconstitutional!!
immigrant reforms: immigrants are coming in again after war --> fears bc 100% Americanism --> Johnson- Reed act 1924: quota sys. for limiting total # of immigrants coming in & # from each country
visa system: to legally migrate
  • black Americans in the 1920s + Harlem Renaissance:
blacks do well financially--> can support culture separate from white culture. glorification of black life/people. (mainly through literature & music)
Langston Hughes: poem- "My people" (black people are beautiful)
Claude McKay: "If we must die" (about lynchings, we should fight back). criticizing South by safety of the North
Cotton Club 1936: whites like the culture but scared of blacks/don't feel safe so blacks are "selling" their culture at this club for only whites (other than black entertainers/workers)
Edward "Duke" Ellington: jazz- same instruments, played differently, up-tempo, improv.
Bessie Smith: blues- slower, talk about negative parts of being black

Marcus Garvey: Universal Negro Improvement Association: should be economically independent from whites, black pride, black nationalism (support black businesses). owns black star line
  • great migration for African Americans:
South --> North (Chicago & NY)

"The Migration of Negroes"-W.E.B. DuBois: NAACP's monthly journal "Crisis" said 
causes: economic-boll weevil & floods in Alabama & Mississippi. wide demand for common labor bc cut off immigration. outbreaks of mob violence
destruction of civil & political rights, lack of protection of life, liberty & property, low wages, Jim Crow, segregation, poor education, harsh & unfair treatment, lynching 
opportunity in north: industrial betterment
didn't care about how they were unprepared for the climate

"The Promised Land?": North = more political & social rights, jobs increased bc cut off immigration. higher wages, educational opportunities, political rights

"The Truth About the North"-The Chicago Commission on Race Relations-"The Arrival in Chicago":
North= scarcity of houses, increase in church membership = efforts to re-engage in community life. 
Urban league helped w adjustment to new conditions. Travelers aid Society & United Charities helped secure living quarters & jobs for them
newspapers: instructions on dress & conduct
farmers & plantation workers: learn new tasks
changes of status, disparity in educational standards
Thomas Family: search for house, no plumbing, electricity, gas, bath, etc. children ashamed of manners of parents.
Jones Family: took a big house & took in lodgers to aid in paying rent. moved N to escape undesirable practices & customs in South/Jim crow & segregation

"Building a New Life in the North"-Charles S. Johnson- "These 'Colored' United States":
effective in politics
  • social changes in the 1920s (movies & tech):
consumerism: making people feel emotions to buy stuff (comes from WW1 propaganda). buy stuff = shows class/status
no $ = higher consumer debt bc installment plans (get the object, pay per week + interest. if don't pay in time = repossessed)
advertising: sex sells
AM radio: radio broadcasts, can be heard from further places, brings new way of thinking into small towns. sex themes: changes views of opposite sex, courting, etc.
movies: Clara Bow, the "It Girl" = sexy. Theda Bara in Cleopatra (vamp) = "man user".  Rudolph Valentino, "The Matador"
model T Ford: affordable, basic transportation --> "parking" for "petting & necking"
flappers: teens-20s w more leg showing, short hair, bras instead of corsets, make up
companionate marriage: marry someone who will be your best friend, lover, provider, etc. = more divorce bc too much pressure on a marriage
  • backlash against changes (KKK):
Ku Klux Klan: resurgence in 1920s, claimed more members, nearly all white, native-born protestants w respected positions in communities. roots in parts of North & West. attacked broader array of targets- blacks & immigrants & all the forces endangering indiv. liberty
  • religious changes in the 1920s (Fundamentalism & ministers):
sister Aimee Semple Mcpherson: Pentecostal (new religious system: speaking in tongues, faith healing, falling out, etc. millennialism) 
had a gospel car & KFSG radio station to reach out to followers 
built church Angelus Temple, uses aspects of Amer. culture/style to bring people in
has a food pantry & seminary to train women: outreaching to expand

fundamentalists: Lyman Stewart= scared that if people start saying some parts of the bible aren't literally true then people might start throwing all of it out. publishes 5 Fundamental Truths. basically says that the bible is literally true, all of that stuff happened, no errors
^ leads to anti-evolution movement: push to ban evolution from schools --> butler act: illegal to teach anything but creationism --> John Scopes taught it so could be arrested to get a case --> Scopes trials

Chapter 17:
  • Hawaii annexation: already closely tied w u.s. through treaties, economy was dominated by Amer. owned sugar plantations. 1893- queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii was overthrown by Amer. planters. Harrison submitted treaty of annexation, Cleveland withdrew bc Hawaiians didn't agree w treaty. 1898- u.s. annexed
  • Spanish-American war: (above)
-yellow press: new mass circulation newspapers promo'd nationalistic sentiments. dubbed "yellow press" after color that Hearst printed a comic strip. mixing sensational accounts of crime & political corruption w aggressive appeals to patriotic sentiments

-Guerrilla warfare: 10 yrs w Spain following Cuban revolt

-battleship Maine: explosion destroyed battleship U.S.S. Maine in havana harbor- nearly 270 died

-teller amendment: states that U.S. had no intention of annexing or dominating Cuba

-Theodore Roosevelt & rough riders: resigned post as assistant secretary of navy to raise volunteer cavalry unit

-battle of San Juan hill: most highly publicized land battle (in Cuba). rough riders charged up hill

-Platt amendment: authorized u.s. to intervene militarily whenever seen fit. Mckinley forced Cuba to add to new gov.

-Jose Marti: stirred up revolution in Cuba from exile in u.s.--> traveled to Cuba to be part of uprising --> killed in battle. "to change masters is not to be free"
  • open door policy in china: demanded that European powers that divided China into commercial spheres of influence grant equal access to Amer. exports. referred to free movement of goods & money 
  • boxer rebellion in china: 1900, Chinese nationalists killed thousands of Christian Chinese & besieged foreign embassies in Beijing. U.S. contributed solders to international force to help suppress rebellion
  • Philippine war: (above)
-Emilio Aguinaldo: Philippines' leader, est. provisional gov. w constitution modeled on U.S.'s

-William Howard Taft: governor-general of the Philippines (1901)
  • foraker act: 1900, declared Puerto Rico an "insular territory". citizens of Puerto Rico, not U.S.
Chapter 18:
  • muckrakers: new generation of journalists writing for mass-circulation national magazines exposing the ills of industrial & urban life 
  • Henry Ford & rise of fordism: developed techniques of production & marketing that brought automobiles in the reach of ordinary Americans. introduced model T. concentrated on standardizing output & lowering prices. Ford's factory adopted idea of moving assembly line--> reduced time it took to produce each car. emphasizes minimization of costs instead of maximization of profit
  • consumerism: new advertising industries perfected ways of increasing sales. "school of freedom" bc shoppers made individ. choices on basic questions of living. personal fulfillment will be found through acquiring material goods
  • Frederick Taylor & scientific management: program that sought to streamline production & boost profits by systematically controlling costs & work practices. through this, "one best way" of producing goods could be determined & implemented
  • socialist party: called for immediate reforms of free college education, legislation to improve condition of laborers, democratic control over economy through public ownership of railroads & factories
  • industrial workers of the world: IWW: unionists who rejected AFL's  (American Federation of Labor) exclusionary policies. advocate of worker's revolution that would seize means of production & abolish the state. solidarity. 
-William Haywood: leader, accused of instigating murder of former anti-union governor- found not guilty

-Lawrence strike: already a strike going on then in Lawrence, Massachusetts- group of women strikers sent strikers' children out of city for duration of the walkout. socialist families took them in --> wave of sympathy for strikers (bc children looked pale & half-starved) --> officials ordered no more kids could leave --> group of mothers & children defied, police drove them away w clubs --> governor intervened --> strike settled on workers' terms

-Paterson strike: Paterson, New Jersey- highly publicized uprising. black & white dockworkers prevented employers' efforts to eliminate their unions & reduce their wages. interracial solidarity

-Ludlow massacre: strikers demanded recognition of United Mine Workers of America, wage increases, 8 hr work day, etc. --> mine owners evicted strikers from company housing --> moved into tent colonies --> armed militia attacked & burned
  • Emma Goldman: lectured about right to birth control, distributed pamphlets w info about contraceptives 
  • Carlos Montezuma: founder of society of American Indians. est. newsletter: Wassaja- condemned federal paternalism toward Indians. demanded full citizenship for Indians
  • Robert la Follette: most influential progressive administration at the state level. implemented Wisconsin idea: nominate candidates through primary elections rather than political bosses, tax corporate wealth, state reg. of railroads & public utilities 
  • John Muir & nature: organized Sierra Club to preserve forests from uncontrolled logging by timber companies. love of nature stemmed from religious feelings 
  • conservation movement: conservation became concerted federal policy. wildlife preserves & national parks were created. regulation of use of resources
-Richard Ballinger: secretary of interior, thought Roosevelt exceeded authority in placing land in forest reserves- decided to return some land to public

-Gifford Pinchot: accused Ballinger of colluding w business interests & repudiating environmental goals of Roosevelt administration
  • federal trade commission: est. to investigate & prohibit "unfair" business activities. reflected expansion of federal role in economy during progressive era
Chapter 19:
  • dollar diplomacy: what Taft's foreign policy became known as bc he emphasized economic investment & loans from Amer. banks rather than military intervention as best way to spread Amer. influence. 
  • wartime state section: 
WW1 created national state w unprecedented powers & increased presence in American's lives
war--> bring new nationalist state that Roosevelt & progressives wanted
federal agencies regulated industry, transportation, labor relations & agriculture
war industries board presided over all elements of war production 
est. standardized specifications for everything = efficiency
railroad administration controlled nations transportation sys.
fuel agency rationed coal & oil
food administration instructed farmers on modern methods of cultivation
war labor board pushed for minimum wage, 8 hr workdays, right to form unions
during war: wages rose, working conditions improved, union membership doubled
  • Alice Paul & national women's party: leader, pressed for right to vote w militant tactics. "how could the country fight for democracy abroad while denying it to women at home". followers chained themselves to white house fence. (suffragettes) 
  • coercive patriotism: suspected of disloyalty to flag --> kiss it in public. made statements critical of flag --> imprisoned. patriotism = support for the government 
-american protective league: helped justice department identify radicals & critics of war by spying on neighbors & carrying out "slacker raids"- men stopped on streets to show draft registration cards 
  • Madison Grant & The Passing of the Great Race: warned that influx of new immigrants & low birthrate of white women threatened foundations of Amer. civilization
  • Niagara movement: black leaders @ Niagara falls & organized movement to reinvigorate abolitionist tradition. Declaration of Principles called for restoring to blacks the right to vote, end to racial segregation, & complete equality in econ. & edu. opportunity
  • tulsa riot: Tulsa, Oklahoma- 1921, black veterans tried to prevent a lynching of a youth who fell on a white female (led to rumors of rape) --> white mob burned an all-black section of city --> more than 300 blacks killed & 10000 homeless
  • flu epidemic: Spanish influenza pandemic (global): spring 1918-summer 1919. killed nearly 700000 Americans
  • worldwide upsurge/soviet union: 
Soviet Union: gov. had nationalized landholdings, banks, factories, etc.
democratic aspirations sent hope & fear throughout the world
Wilson: hoped to foster trade w them but fear of communism inspired military intervention. refused to extend diplomatic recognition to Lenin's gov.
  • Seattle strike: walkout of shipyard workers turned into a general strike that united AFL unions & IWW. committee of labor leaders oversaw city services until federal troops ended strike
  • great steel strike: united mostly immigrant workers in demands for union recognition, higher wages, & 8 hr workday --> strike collapsed bc steel magnates counterattacked using anti-immigrant sentiment & propaganda about them associating w IWW, communism, etc.
Chapter 20:
  • Sacco & Vanzetti trial: 1920, police arrested Nicola Sacco & Bartolomeo Vanzetti (2 Italian immigrants), accused of participating in robbery at a factory where a security guard was killed. little evidence but they were anarchists & immigrants so they were "guilty"
  • Bruce Barton & The Man Nobody Knows: advertising executive, best seller that showed jesus as a great advertiser 
  • American plan: "open shop"- workplace free of gov. regulation & unions
  • Robert & Helen Lynd's Middletown: study of life in Muncie, Indiana- typical community. found that new leisure activities & emphasis on consumption replaced politics as focus of concern
  • teapot dome scandal: notorious, involved Secretary of interior: Albert Fall. accepted money from private businessmen to whom he leased gov. oil reserves at Teapot dome, Wyoming. first cabinet member convicted of felony
  • hays code for movies: enforced set of guidelines that prohibited movies from showing nudity, log kisses, & adultery. barred scripts showing clergymen in a negative light, or criminal sympathetically. hoped self-censorship would prevent censorship from local gov.
  • Billy Sunday: revivalist preacher- theatrical preaching style- fundamentalist
-100% Americanism: continued into 1920s- citizenship education programs, legal visits into immigrants' homes to investigate, efforts by employers to instill appreciation for Amer. values

-Leo Frank: Jewish factory manager accused of killing a teenage girl --> lynched --> KKK reborn
  • new negro: rejection of established stereotypes & a search for black values to put in their place

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