Monday, March 14, 2016

Thursday, March 10, 2016

HIST 1302 exam #2 | review

Darwinism: 1870-1920
idea of natural selection, adaptation, evolution from Charles Darwin
Herbert Spencer- "survival of the fittest"- applied ideas to human institutions
  • beliefs in social Darwinism including laissez-faire capitalism:
William Graham Sumner believed traditions emerge bc that's how society organized it
concept of social evolution based on individual competition
corporations emerged bc better adapted to environment
laissez-faire capitalism= saw freedom as the right of individuals to pursue their economic interests w/o outside restraint, "hands off" gov.
eugenics movement: your genetics make you better
Madison Grant's "The Passing of the Great Race" some white people/groups are superior to others
Henry Ward Beecher: (protestant) believed more $ = more moral (old puritan idea)
^Beecher-Tilton scandal (affair)
  • beliefs in reform Darwinism including the social Gospel movement:
humans better than animals bc have mind/soul
mind --> we can control our environment --> we can control what happens to us
change environment through education --> help immigrants improve themselves
recognized that the fittest could be those who cooperated with each other
settlement houses: teach kids middle class values
Jane Addams & Hull House: advocates for lower class, fundraising & donates $ for settlement houses
Washington Gladden: (protestant) --> social Gospel movement= originated effort to reform Protestant churches by expanding appeal & making them more attentive to era's social ills. applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice. christian duty to help others to improve society/environment
Charles Sheldon (minister in social gospel movement) book: "In His Steps"- idea: WWJD?

Progressivism: 1890-1920
  • why develop? 
  1. reform Darwinism & social gospel movement
  2. panic of 1893: people realize others aren't poor bc they're lazy. no jobs, depression, etc.
  3. muckrakers (usually socialists) & muckraking journalism: talking about problems in Amer. society- printed magazines, journals, etc. 
  • who believed/benefited?
middle class people bc it gives them more power. wanted direct gov. action to solve problems. wanted gov. to regulate corporations, not own them (like socialists would want)

  • political progressive reforms (changes to the political system itself):
voter registration laws: kept people from voting- disfranchises lower class/poor
poll tax: tax on right to vote, cumulative
literacy test: could make someone read a hard or easy part of the constitution depending on if the registrar likes them/ wants them to vote (targeted republicans bc that's what part the blacks supported)
grandfather clause: if your grandfather in 1860 can vote, you can too (so that democrats who couldn't read could still vote)
secret ballot: you have to be literate to vote bc don't get help. disfranchises lower class who don't know how to vote/mark ballots correctly
16th amendment: 1913, income tax (provides stable $ source, designed to tax upper class)
17th amendment: direct election of senators (the people pick)
  • economic progressive reforms (changes to society, especially women):
Sherman anti-trust act 1890: prohibits business activities that federal government regulators think are anti-competitive, prevent the artificial raising of prices by restriction of trade or supply. used against unions
trust-busting: Theodore Roosevelt (progressive republican) becomes president, doesn't like how monopolies affect consumers --> break (bad) monopolies to create competition
Upton Sinclair: muckraker- socialist. writes "The Jungle" (1906) about meat packing industry --> gov. investigation --> meat inspection act 1906: gov. regulator make sure animals that are slaughtered are healthy 
pure food & drug act: ban manufacture, sale, & transportation of adulterated (adding non-food to product to make it "more"), misbranded (ex. selling cat meat as other meat), or harmful food/drugs/liquors 
Harrison act 1906:  ban sale of narcotics & opiates
federal reserve act 1913: Woodrow Wilson = president at the time. act created federal reserve system --> federal reserve banks -->
  1. regulated currency/stabilized inflation & deflation
  2. regulate banking system (stopped speculation ??)
  3. oversee interest rates (lower/raise bc inflation/deflation)
child labor reform: children 15 & under working in textile, news, mining may be major source of income for some families. progressives think children need to be in school --> laws limiting work hours for children --> corporations file lawsuits --> supreme court says can't regulate children's hours bc it's a contract btwn corporation & child
women's labor: limit hours women work
Muller v. Oregon 1908: Oregon passes 10 hr limit, 6 days a week for women. Muller (laundry owner) files lawsuit --> Florence Kelly (of National consumers' union) & Louis Brandeis (Jewish progressive) write a defense of Oregon law --> judicial activism: set aside old precedent, things have changed --> sup. crt agrees w Oregon. --> limited hours for women
international ladies' garment workers' union: companies have to stop charging rent on sewing machines & increase pay
Rose Scheiderman: worked in garment industry. strike leader. reach out to middle class consumers so that strike is stronger --> strike wins bc well organized, play to the audience, middle class
clothing reform: changed from corsets, bustles, no ankles, restricting clothes --> clothes that make it easier to be mobile so women can play golf, tennis, ride bikes, etc.
Victoria Woodhull: 1st female stockbroker, "free love" has a newspaper: attacks sexual double standard
Margaret Sanger: saw it was a problem that women couldn't control how many babies they were having --> gave women diaphragms, taught sex ed/sent out basic reproductive info in mail (only to married women) --> men didn't like this --> arrested for "sending porn" 
her organization changes names to planned parenthood
settlement  houses= social progressivism
national american women suffrage association: want right to vote so that can reform society:
  1. it's only fair
  2. women pay taxes too
  3. they're citizens
  4. they follow laws like men do
^people don't agree bc women aren't in the military, juries, or in a "posse" & they don't need the right to vote bc  they have male relatives who "can vote for them"
1913, woman suffrage parade in Washington D.C.: women from all states in parade, are attacked & arrested
suffragists: moderate/lobbying
suffragettes: radicals, fight back

Imperialism: 1865-1917
territorial expansion
  • anti-imperialism: 
    1. racism: (south) non-whites shouldn't be in the states
    2. expense of an empire: would cost a lot- democrats didn't want that
    3. senator George Hoar: says it will create classicism/ some people "belonging to U.S." won't have rights 
  • imperialism: "need it" bc:
  1. markets for exports 
  2. Alfred Thayer Mahan's "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History" (U.S. needs fueling stations- islands- for ships)
  3. religion: protestant christian missionaries (Josiah Strong)
  4. social Darwinism: Albert Beveridge 
William Mckinley = president 1896: won  & sees it as the people want to be an empire
insular cases 1901: people of annexed territory file court case saying they're americans. court rules that the"constitution doesn't follow the flag"- U.S. owns the territory but they're not citizens
  • Spanish-American war: what happened? effects? 
Cuban struggle won u.s.'s support. 1898- yellow press blamed Spain for U.S.S. Maine. Spain rejected ceasefire--> Mckinley asked congress to declare war. purpose: to help Cuban patriots in struggle for "liberty & freedom" -->  U.S. also supported the ongoing struggle of Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines for independence against Spanish rule --> conflict --> navy defeated Spanish fleet May 1--> another victory July --> Treaty of Paris
  • Philippine-american war: what happened? effects?
Mckinley decided to retain possession of islands, Filipino movement turned against u.s. --> war --> reports of what american troops did tarnished nation's self-image --> McKinley administration said its aim was to "uplift & civilize & Christianize" them 
  • panama canal: what happened? effects?
Colombia refused to cede land--> Roosevelt set in motion uprisings--> helped Panama become independent from Colombia--> get to create canal that links Atlantic & Pacific ocean--> William Crawford Gorgas understood mosquitoes & told them how to get rid of them so that people building canals wouldn't die --> reduced sea voyage
  • mexico: what happened? effects?
under Mexican president Porfirio Diaz, Amer. companies controlled mining, rubber, & oil in Mexico. Mexicans have built up resentment --> Mexican Revolution 1911-1920 --> many Mexicans leave to U.S. --> General Victoriano Huerta resents Amer. --> passes law: foreign ships have to have permission before landing --> 1914 U.S.S. dolphin lands w/o permission --> arrested 
U.S. @ Vera Cruz: attacked 
Argentina, Brazil, & Cuba step in to prevent war btwn Amer. & Mexico
General Francisco "Pancho" Villa doesn't like Amer. bc they control Mexico so much --> attacked New Mexico & went back to Mexico --> U.S. asks president Venustiano Carranza to invade, he lets them --> General John "Black Jack" Pershing can't find Pancho Villa & shoots other Mexican civilians --> Carranza forces them out --> U.S. sends national guard to border to defend from Mexican attacks & shoots everyone bc don't know different btwn Mexicans & Mexican-Amer.
  • China & Hawaii:
Hawaii lay astride shipping routes to market of China 
already had Chinese workers
Hawaii became traditional territory- became Amer. citizens & admitted as a state
First World War: 1914-1918

allies: France, Russia, great Britain
central powers: Germany, Austro-Hungarian empire, ottoman empire
  • american foreign policy btwn 1914-1916 (before U.S. entry into war):
neutrality- not involved (though they favor the allies bc the french have been their ally since forever & the British share a similar language & culture)
neutral shipping rights: trade ties must precede war, can't trade "war materials" (but anything can be a war material)
  • american military personnel during war: 
segregated- Americans thought whites needed more training so gave black troops to France
369th infantry: most heavily decorated for bravery, fought longer than whites, treated as equals by British & French
  • conduct of war 1917-1918:
British stop Amer. ships from trading w Germany, can only trade w them
British are cutting communication so Americans don't know about ^
Germany creates U-boats (submarines) to attack British ships (element of surprise) but war rules: civilian ship has to be WARNED by war ship that they're going to attack --> unrestricted submarine warfare --> sinking of Lusitania (1915) --> Germany stops unrestricted warfare to please America
  • conditions at home during war:
preparedness campaign:
  1. build up army & navy supplies
  2. need officers (who have college degrees)--> PT on college campuses 
  3. patriotic education (talks good about U.S.) to convince immigrants to fight for U.S.
no one wants war --> U.S. congress declares war on Apr. 4, 1917 bc:
  1. Germans announce they're going back to unrestricted sub. warfare 
  2. Zimmerman telegram: Germany sends message to Mexico saying they'll help take back the lost territory if they invade America
  3. Russian Czar Nicholas II is thrown out--> Parliamentary government
  4. Germany sinks 5 Amer. ships in 1 week
selective service act: 18-35, 1/3 of men = unfit to fight bc:
  1. punctured eardrum/flat feet/etc.
  2. too thin/undernourished --> diseases & high STD rate
  3. IQ tests to determine jobs
espionage act 1917: prevents from criticizing gov., military, etc. in print
sedition act 1917: no false or scandalous talk about gov., restricts freedom of speech
Schenk v. U.S. 1919 --> civil rights can be denied/ abridged if it poses "clear & present danger"
100% Americanism, Super patriotism: unquestioning blind loyalty to gov. --> attacks on socialists (who don't support war), Quakers (who don't fight) & German-Americans
Robert Prager- spoke English w German accent = "spy"--> attacked & hanged --> "not guilty" bc "patriotic murder"
  • conditions for american soldiers:
military training camps: white zones of "purity" = keep out bad influences --> leads to high syphilis & gonorrhea rates--> changes men's sexual standards & marriage views

Lloyd Stanley: in NY where many soldiers & sailors are for Camp Mills
"mass production" of soldiers = industrialism 

Stull Holt: Verdun attack, roads packed w traffic, guns, etc., use of gas & shells 

Albert Smith: gas & machine guns, no bath, battle in Argenne Forest. 3rd Tenn. Infantry: black regiment
1920s
  • conditions when war ended: prohibition, woman suffrage, etc.:
18th amendment: prohibition- bans manufacture/sale/transport of brewed (beer), fermented (wine), & distilled (liquor) beverages. doesn't ban drinking it
^ why?
  1. wasting food by turning into alcohol
  2. beer comes from Germany
  3. if [not drinking] is good enough for the soldiers, it's good enough for civilians
Volstead act: can't drink alcohol= amount consumed goes down 50% bc drinking changed:
before- drinking was part of an event, after- drinking WAS the event. people went out to get drunk --> public intoxication increases
before- people drank deer & wine, after- drink hard liquor bc sellers can make more money 
Al Capone & organized crime: selling illegal alcohol

women's suffrage: they argued that they "went to war" bc they contributed since it was a total war
19th amendment: right to vote regardless of sex/gender

strikes in 1919: (bc during WW1, they worked for less bc patriotic duty but now they want better wages & bc inflation)
-Seattle general strike: dock workers + other unions walk off job--> shuts down whole city
-Boston police strike: police in poverty, no to pay rise --> strike --> Calvin Coolidge sends national guard to break up strike

wall street bombing 1919: Wallstreet = symbol of capitalism--> 36 mail bombs--> people think it's the Bolsheviks --> red scare
  • development of the Red Scare & it's effects:
1917- Bolshevik revolution: Russians are promised that they'll end the war
Bolsheviks are communists (think that gov. should own all property), atheists (want to eliminate religion bc it creates a false divide btwn classes), & dictators 
fear that they're coming to Amer. --> paranoid about socialists, anarchists, & labor union supporters 
Palmer raids led by A. Mitchell Palmer (attorney general) & J. Edgar Hoover (FBI): arrested over 6000 people w/o warrant & no bail--> put on "Soviet ark" & sent to Russia. unconstitutional!!
immigrant reforms: immigrants are coming in again after war --> fears bc 100% Americanism --> Johnson- Reed act 1924: quota sys. for limiting total # of immigrants coming in & # from each country
visa system: to legally migrate
  • black Americans in the 1920s + Harlem Renaissance:
blacks do well financially--> can support culture separate from white culture. glorification of black life/people. (mainly through literature & music)
Langston Hughes: poem- "My people" (black people are beautiful)
Claude McKay: "If we must die" (about lynchings, we should fight back). criticizing South by safety of the North
Cotton Club 1936: whites like the culture but scared of blacks/don't feel safe so blacks are "selling" their culture at this club for only whites (other than black entertainers/workers)
Edward "Duke" Ellington: jazz- same instruments, played differently, up-tempo, improv.
Bessie Smith: blues- slower, talk about negative parts of being black

Marcus Garvey: Universal Negro Improvement Association: should be economically independent from whites, black pride, black nationalism (support black businesses). owns black star line
  • great migration for African Americans:
South --> North (Chicago & NY)

"The Migration of Negroes"-W.E.B. DuBois: NAACP's monthly journal "Crisis" said 
causes: economic-boll weevil & floods in Alabama & Mississippi. wide demand for common labor bc cut off immigration. outbreaks of mob violence
destruction of civil & political rights, lack of protection of life, liberty & property, low wages, Jim Crow, segregation, poor education, harsh & unfair treatment, lynching 
opportunity in north: industrial betterment
didn't care about how they were unprepared for the climate

"The Promised Land?": North = more political & social rights, jobs increased bc cut off immigration. higher wages, educational opportunities, political rights

"The Truth About the North"-The Chicago Commission on Race Relations-"The Arrival in Chicago":
North= scarcity of houses, increase in church membership = efforts to re-engage in community life. 
Urban league helped w adjustment to new conditions. Travelers aid Society & United Charities helped secure living quarters & jobs for them
newspapers: instructions on dress & conduct
farmers & plantation workers: learn new tasks
changes of status, disparity in educational standards
Thomas Family: search for house, no plumbing, electricity, gas, bath, etc. children ashamed of manners of parents.
Jones Family: took a big house & took in lodgers to aid in paying rent. moved N to escape undesirable practices & customs in South/Jim crow & segregation

"Building a New Life in the North"-Charles S. Johnson- "These 'Colored' United States":
effective in politics
  • social changes in the 1920s (movies & tech):
consumerism: making people feel emotions to buy stuff (comes from WW1 propaganda). buy stuff = shows class/status
no $ = higher consumer debt bc installment plans (get the object, pay per week + interest. if don't pay in time = repossessed)
advertising: sex sells
AM radio: radio broadcasts, can be heard from further places, brings new way of thinking into small towns. sex themes: changes views of opposite sex, courting, etc.
movies: Clara Bow, the "It Girl" = sexy. Theda Bara in Cleopatra (vamp) = "man user".  Rudolph Valentino, "The Matador"
model T Ford: affordable, basic transportation --> "parking" for "petting & necking"
flappers: teens-20s w more leg showing, short hair, bras instead of corsets, make up
companionate marriage: marry someone who will be your best friend, lover, provider, etc. = more divorce bc too much pressure on a marriage
  • backlash against changes (KKK):
Ku Klux Klan: resurgence in 1920s, claimed more members, nearly all white, native-born protestants w respected positions in communities. roots in parts of North & West. attacked broader array of targets- blacks & immigrants & all the forces endangering indiv. liberty
  • religious changes in the 1920s (Fundamentalism & ministers):
sister Aimee Semple Mcpherson: Pentecostal (new religious system: speaking in tongues, faith healing, falling out, etc. millennialism) 
had a gospel car & KFSG radio station to reach out to followers 
built church Angelus Temple, uses aspects of Amer. culture/style to bring people in
has a food pantry & seminary to train women: outreaching to expand

fundamentalists: Lyman Stewart= scared that if people start saying some parts of the bible aren't literally true then people might start throwing all of it out. publishes 5 Fundamental Truths. basically says that the bible is literally true, all of that stuff happened, no errors
^ leads to anti-evolution movement: push to ban evolution from schools --> butler act: illegal to teach anything but creationism --> John Scopes taught it so could be arrested to get a case --> Scopes trials
__________________________________________________

Chapter 17:
  • Hawaii annexation: already closely tied w u.s. through treaties, economy was dominated by Amer. owned sugar plantations. 1893- queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii was overthrown by Amer. planters. Harrison submitted treaty of annexation, Cleveland withdrew bc Hawaiians didn't agree w treaty. 1898- u.s. annexed
  • Spanish-American war: (above)
-yellow press: new mass circulation newspapers promo'd nationalistic sentiments. dubbed "yellow press" after color that Hearst printed a comic strip. mixing sensational accounts of crime & political corruption w aggressive appeals to patriotic sentiments

-Guerrilla warfare: 10 yrs w Spain following Cuban revolt

-battleship Maine: explosion destroyed battleship U.S.S. Maine in havana harbor- nearly 270 died

-teller amendment: states that U.S. had no intention of annexing or dominating Cuba

-Theodore Roosevelt & rough riders: resigned post as assistant secretary of navy to raise volunteer cavalry unit

-battle of San Juan hill: most highly publicized land battle (in Cuba). rough riders charged up hill

-Platt amendment: authorized u.s. to intervene militarily whenever seen fit. Mckinley forced Cuba to add to new gov.

-Jose Marti: stirred up revolution in Cuba from exile in u.s.--> traveled to Cuba to be part of uprising --> killed in battle. "to change masters is not to be free"
  • open door policy in china: demanded that European powers that divided China into commercial spheres of influence grant equal access to Amer. exports. referred to free movement of goods & money 
  • boxer rebellion in china: 1900, Chinese nationalists killed thousands of Christian Chinese & besieged foreign embassies in Beijing. U.S. contributed solders to international force to help suppress rebellion
  • Philippine war: (above)
-Emilio Aguinaldo: Philippines' leader, est. provisional gov. w constitution modeled on U.S.'s

-William Howard Taft: governor-general of the Philippines (1901)
  • foraker act: 1900, declared Puerto Rico an "insular territory". citizens of Puerto Rico, not U.S.
Chapter 18:
  • muckrakers: new generation of journalists writing for mass-circulation national magazines exposing the ills of industrial & urban life 
  • Henry Ford & rise of fordism: developed techniques of production & marketing that brought automobiles in the reach of ordinary Americans. introduced model T. concentrated on standardizing output & lowering prices. Ford's factory adopted idea of moving assembly line--> reduced time it took to produce each car. emphasizes minimization of costs instead of maximization of profit
  • consumerism: new advertising industries perfected ways of increasing sales. "school of freedom" bc shoppers made individ. choices on basic questions of living. personal fulfillment will be found through acquiring material goods
  • Frederick Taylor & scientific management: program that sought to streamline production & boost profits by systematically controlling costs & work practices. through this, "one best way" of producing goods could be determined & implemented
  • socialist party: called for immediate reforms of free college education, legislation to improve condition of laborers, democratic control over economy through public ownership of railroads & factories
  • industrial workers of the world: IWW: unionists who rejected AFL's  (American Federation of Labor) exclusionary policies. advocate of worker's revolution that would seize means of production & abolish the state. solidarity. 
-William Haywood: leader, accused of instigating murder of former anti-union governor- found not guilty

-Lawrence strike: already a strike going on then in Lawrence, Massachusetts- group of women strikers sent strikers' children out of city for duration of the walkout. socialist families took them in --> wave of sympathy for strikers (bc children looked pale & half-starved) --> officials ordered no more kids could leave --> group of mothers & children defied, police drove them away w clubs --> governor intervened --> strike settled on workers' terms

-Paterson strike: Paterson, New Jersey- highly publicized uprising. black & white dockworkers prevented employers' efforts to eliminate their unions & reduce their wages. interracial solidarity

-Ludlow massacre: strikers demanded recognition of United Mine Workers of America, wage increases, 8 hr work day, etc. --> mine owners evicted strikers from company housing --> moved into tent colonies --> armed militia attacked & burned
  • Emma Goldman: lectured about right to birth control, distributed pamphlets w info about contraceptives 
  • Carlos Montezuma: founder of society of American Indians. est. newsletter: Wassaja- condemned federal paternalism toward Indians. demanded full citizenship for Indians
  • Robert la Follette: most influential progressive administration at the state level. implemented Wisconsin idea: nominate candidates through primary elections rather than political bosses, tax corporate wealth, state reg. of railroads & public utilities 
  • John Muir & nature: organized Sierra Club to preserve forests from uncontrolled logging by timber companies. love of nature stemmed from religious feelings 
  • conservation movement: conservation became concerted federal policy. wildlife preserves & national parks were created. regulation of use of resources
-Richard Ballinger: secretary of interior, thought Roosevelt exceeded authority in placing land in forest reserves- decided to return some land to public

-Gifford Pinchot: accused Ballinger of colluding w business interests & repudiating environmental goals of Roosevelt administration
  • federal trade commission: est. to investigate & prohibit "unfair" business activities. reflected expansion of federal role in economy during progressive era
Chapter 19:
  • dollar diplomacy: what Taft's foreign policy became known as bc he emphasized economic investment & loans from Amer. banks rather than military intervention as best way to spread Amer. influence. 
  • wartime state section: 
WW1 created national state w unprecedented powers & increased presence in American's lives
war--> bring new nationalist state that Roosevelt & progressives wanted
federal agencies regulated industry, transportation, labor relations & agriculture
war industries board presided over all elements of war production 
est. standardized specifications for everything = efficiency
railroad administration controlled nations transportation sys.
fuel agency rationed coal & oil
food administration instructed farmers on modern methods of cultivation
war labor board pushed for minimum wage, 8 hr workdays, right to form unions
during war: wages rose, working conditions improved, union membership doubled
  • Alice Paul & national women's party: leader, pressed for right to vote w militant tactics. "how could the country fight for democracy abroad while denying it to women at home". followers chained themselves to white house fence. (suffragettes) 
  • coercive patriotism: suspected of disloyalty to flag --> kiss it in public. made statements critical of flag --> imprisoned. patriotism = support for the government 
-american protective league: helped justice department identify radicals & critics of war by spying on neighbors & carrying out "slacker raids"- men stopped on streets to show draft registration cards 
  • Madison Grant & The Passing of the Great Race: warned that influx of new immigrants & low birthrate of white women threatened foundations of Amer. civilization
  • Niagara movement: black leaders @ Niagara falls & organized movement to reinvigorate abolitionist tradition. Declaration of Principles called for restoring to blacks the right to vote, end to racial segregation, & complete equality in econ. & edu. opportunity
  • tulsa riot: Tulsa, Oklahoma- 1921, black veterans tried to prevent a lynching of a youth who fell on a white female (led to rumors of rape) --> white mob burned an all-black section of city --> more than 300 blacks killed & 10000 homeless
  • flu epidemic: Spanish influenza pandemic (global): spring 1918-summer 1919. killed nearly 700000 Americans
  • worldwide upsurge/soviet union: 
Soviet Union: gov. had nationalized landholdings, banks, factories, etc.
democratic aspirations sent hope & fear throughout the world
Wilson: hoped to foster trade w them but fear of communism inspired military intervention. refused to extend diplomatic recognition to Lenin's gov.
  • Seattle strike: walkout of shipyard workers turned into a general strike that united AFL unions & IWW. committee of labor leaders oversaw city services until federal troops ended strike
  • great steel strike: united mostly immigrant workers in demands for union recognition, higher wages, & 8 hr workday --> strike collapsed bc steel magnates counterattacked using anti-immigrant sentiment & propaganda about them associating w IWW, communism, etc.
Chapter 20:
  • Sacco & Vanzetti trial: 1920, police arrested Nicola Sacco & Bartolomeo Vanzetti (2 Italian immigrants), accused of participating in robbery at a factory where a security guard was killed. little evidence but they were anarchists & immigrants so they were "guilty"
  • Bruce Barton & The Man Nobody Knows: advertising executive, best seller that showed jesus as a great advertiser 
  • American plan: "open shop"- workplace free of gov. regulation & unions
  • Robert & Helen Lynd's Middletown: study of life in Muncie, Indiana- typical community. found that new leisure activities & emphasis on consumption replaced politics as focus of concern
  • teapot dome scandal: notorious, involved Secretary of interior: Albert Fall. accepted money from private businessmen to whom he leased gov. oil reserves at Teapot dome, Wyoming. first cabinet member convicted of felony
  • hays code for movies: enforced set of guidelines that prohibited movies from showing nudity, log kisses, & adultery. barred scripts showing clergymen in a negative light, or criminal sympathetically. hoped self-censorship would prevent censorship from local gov.
  • Billy Sunday: revivalist preacher- theatrical preaching style- fundamentalist
-100% Americanism: continued into 1920s- citizenship education programs, legal visits into immigrants' homes to investigate, efforts by employers to instill appreciation for Amer. values

-Leo Frank: Jewish factory manager accused of killing a teenage girl --> lynched --> KKK reborn
  • new negro: rejection of established stereotypes & a search for black values to put in their place

Monday, March 7, 2016

"good vibes only" crop top (Thrifted)
super light wash jeans
black rose flower crown
red flannel (hot topic)



Friday, March 4, 2016

Most Likely To Challenge | Ft. Paulskie

loose golden/brown/tan sheer top (forever 21)
frayed jean shorts
jesus sandals/jandals (hallmark)




Wednesday, March 2, 2016


"Black Cherry" Revlon lipstick (CVS)
"Diamond" studded choker (wet seal)

hooded flannel (Ross)
loose gray t-shirt (aeropostle)
jeggings (abercrombie & fitch)