Tuesday, December 8, 2015

HIST 1301 exam # 4 | review

Religion
  • evangelical christian groups: believed in personal relationships w God
Baptists, Presbyterians, Methodists
millennialism: (William Miller & the Millerites) believe world is going to end soon
circuit riders: ministers ride to different churches in a circuit to preach
Methodist camp meetings: try to convert people. hope unsaved will be saved. witnessing = effective.
  • second great awakening:
starts in west bc not many churches yet

same things as 1st great awakening- witnessing, fire & brimstone, emotion, emphasis on salvation
new: personal salvation (all CAN be saved)
salvation = revolutionary experience. conversion--> change your life & you can help others too
  • religious beliefs & practices of Oneidans:
Utopian community (Christian Communism) 1820s-1860s
John Humphrey Noyes: believed that saved --> sins washed --> perfect --> can no longer choose to sin (so if you still want to do something, then it's not a sin anymore)
routine = leads to unintended sin
men & women = equal
make $: beaver traps, silverware
public criticism- community tells you what you do wrong. can't argue bc you don't know you're doing it bc your sins are unintentional
all the men are married to all the women & all the women married to all the men (bc routine --> sin)
no masturbation, use withdrawal method, birth control = not many children
  • Shakers/ United Society of Believers in Christ's second appearing: 
kicked out of Quakers bc they did ecstatic worship
Utopian community/Christian communism, millennialists
men & women =equal, Africans are allowed too
God has 2 aspects: male= Jesus, female= Ann Lee (founder)
ritual dancing: formal & structured- to purge sinfulness
men & women separated, sex segregated jobs, same education but separate
led by 2 elders & 2 eldresses
sex (don't reproduce), alcohol, caffeine, & tobacco = sinful
same clothes= simplicity
water cure (bathing)
make $: sell seeds & furniture, baskets & boxes
more members by conversion or taking in orphans who might become shakers
winter shakers= homeless/migrants who need a place to stay live in the shaker houses & follow rules
  • religious beliefs & practices of Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints/Mormons:
Joseph Smith: angels showed him plates for Book of Mormon, he translated them & says after new testament, Jesus went to Native American Christians & there was a war btwn Native American Christians & non Christians
clan-ish/stick together = worried non-Mormons
polygamy --> schism btw those who accepted it & those who didn't
most Mormon marriages = monogamous bc have to be able to support wives equally (need $$$)
Mormon women like polygamy bc all are like sisters, all take care of children
^ they are asked whether they are ok w it before the men are asked
Polygamy ends in 1887
Brigham Young = leader after Smith was lynched
Mormon trail: to Mexico bc Mexicans are descendants of Native Amer. from scriptures
go to Deseret (land of the honeybee) bc Great salt lake
own water communally
irrigated farming
Christian communism/cooperative villages
theocracy
wanted to convert Indians which worried U.S.

Social reforms
  • temperance & alcohol reforms:
high alcohol consumption --> 1830 reform
religious reasons: alcohol= sin
manufacturing jobs required sobriety bc don't wanna damage machinery
financial reasons: panic 1837 --> stop wasting $ on alcohol
alcohol= poison
American Temperance union: religious temperance society. no prohibition, TOTAL abstinence pledge, cold water pledge (only drink water instead)
Maine Laws: impose moral laws on others
Washington temperance union: secular, use reason. alcoholism = disease, not sin
  • women's conditions & women's rights movement:
the way that things were: cult of domesticity (women were wives & moms), separate spheres argument (men= war, diplomacy, economics, politics, etc., women= care for home, children, arts, religion, cooking, in home activities, etc.) <-- ideas of white middle class women
Catherine Beecher supports ^ & wrote Treatise on Domestic Economy (1841)

Sarah Grimke doesn't like ^ & wrote Equality of the Sexes

Elizabeth Cady Stanton: rewrote bible from women's POV, 8 children, atheist

Lucretia Mott: quaker, 12 children, friends w ^

Seneca Falls convention, 1848: Declaration of Rights & Sentiments (rewrite dec. of inde. w "& women" add). discussed education, right to speak, property rights, jobs, right to vote

Elizabeth Blackwell: had educated liberal Christian family, wanted to be medical doctor- Geneva medical college accepted her as a joke but she graduated valedictorian--> 1st female medical doctor in U.S. --> Emily & Elizabeth Blackwell open free clinic --> pioneered study of OB/GYN

Antoinette Brown Blackwell: went to Oberlin (liberal Christian college that accepted men/women/black/white) men studied to be ministers, women studied to be ministers' wives. she wanted to be in male classes, graduated w male degree of divinity, 1st female ordained minister 

Lucy Stone: vowed to never marry bc didn't wanna lose her independence/identity, Thomas Blackwell interested & said he'd sign paperwork so she keeps her independence & property. 1st to retain maiden name & identity
  • beliefs & people of abolition movement; divisions:
economic argument: owning slave = unfair advantage to produce more than others
emancipation: political argument 
North reflecting on "all men are created equal"
NY emancipation laws: respect rights of slave owners= slaves work for 28 yrs as compensation

abolitionists use religious argument, slavery is sinful, free slaves immediately w/o compensation

Theodore Dwight Weld: wrote American Slavery As It Is (testimony of 1000 witnesses) to get white northerners info about slavery

David Walker: free black bc his mom was free (condition follows the mother). wrote an Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World (1829). asks slaves "why are we slaves? we outnumber the whites"

Frederick Douglass: bi-racial, well educated, father/slave owner refused to free him so ran away. newspaper: North Star Abolitionist. thinks politics will help, willing to compromise, wants to have a say in the movement, sees North doesn't have slavery but still racism

William Lloyd Garrison: the Liberator (newspaper, 1831). doesn't think politics will work --> societies/lectures to get info about slavery out in North, all or nothing terms, thinks African Amer. shouldn't be leaders in abolition movement bc they're "pure", sees the North as good

Arthur & Lewis Tappan: evangelical christians, provide $ for the Liberator. create American Anti-Slavery Society

Pennsylvania anti-slavery society: men & women. Sarah Grimke & Angelina Grimke Weld= freed their slaves, spoke before men
  • underground railroad: 
in South, black help for run away slaves going North (some whites help bc hate slavery- Quakers)
in North, white help for run away slaves- underground railroad

Harriet Tubman: run away slave, go to St. Catherine's in Canada. goes back south to bring more slaves to freedom by using bias of white men against them

Sojourner Truth: vision from God to runaway, witnessed & testified in 2nd great awakening

Westward expansion
  • Texas revolution:
Mexico = independent, cancelled out treaty w Spain --> Amer. want TX again
Stephen F. Austin bring families to settle in TX (empresario)
Mexico says have to follow their rules, be Christian, & assimilate
settlers bring slaves into TX but Mexico abolished slavery in 1829
Mexico sent Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to make them give up slavery but they don't --> 
Texas Revolution
1836, battle of Alamo, many Americans killed. 1836, battle of San Jacinto, Mexicans defeated
TX wants to be annexed by U.S. but denied bc would be slave state & maybe lead to war w Mexico
  • James Polk presidency & manifest destiny:
Democrat, , slaveholder
if elect him, he will annex TX, Cali., & Oregon
annexed TX --> War w Mexico bc also wanted Cali. but needed a "just"/defensive war-->
Polk sends army w General Zachary Taylor to border (Amer. on Nueces river, Mex. on Rio Grande river) --> orders Taylor to go to Rio Grande --> Mex. sees as invasion --> skirmish near Brownsville, TX, Polk declared war --> Mexican American war
  • Mexican Amer. war & expansion:
theaters of operation: invade Cali., & North Mexico
fall of Monterey--> U.S. stopped Santa Anna at battle of Buena Vista--> invasion of central Mexico --> attack at Veracruz --> fall of Mexico city 1847 --> Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848 

Gold Rush

1848- gold discovered in foothills of Sierra Nevada Mtns. at Swiss immigrant Johann A. Sutter's sawmill
  • trail to Cali.: Overland trail
stage coach and wagon trail, journey of 2,000 miles, diseases (cholera) killed many
  • gold fields:
abundance of placer gold, (easier mined gold) quickly diminishing
mountains more and more crowded
struggle to find un-mined land 
isolated mining towns
fear of physical danger, illness from bad food/harsh environment, miserable living conditions
loneliness & homesickness
hard and laborious
conditions were rough
camps constantly taken down when deposits of gold dwindle
  • conditions for diff. groups:
Americans: left families to make a fortune. organized extralegal groups that expelled foreign miners from areas w gold
Australians: traded w gold diggers, offering services
Chinese: efforts by European miners to drive them away. anti-Chinese legislation. hard-working
Blacks: also discriminated against
Indians: communities overran by gold seekers, murdered by miners, ranchers, & vigilantes. state officials paid bounties to private militias to attack them. Indian children declared as orphans or vagrants bought & sold as slaves. some Indian groups retreated while others raided white settlements. some worked as laborers for whites or found gold & traded w whites.
Women: ran restaurants & boardinghouses, worked as laundresses, cooks, & prostitutes
Mexicans: property rights of rancho owners ignored
  • who benefited? 
Sam Brannon- opened store next to Sutter's mill
merchants who sold supplies to miners
49ers- company of miners
Kit Carson- bought sheep from Indians to sell at gold fields
Chun Ming- Cantonese man who struck rich & other chinese came after hearing about it
Luzena Stanley Wilson- went w husband, got provisions & miners paid for food. built an inn
Wa Lee- enterprising Chinese immigrant, opened Cali.'s 1st hand laundry--> $$
  • who didn't benefit? 
foreign miners were taxed to drive them away from the gold mines
^ voting & right to testify in court limited to whites
Donner party- wrong shortcut, stranded in winter
Lakota Sioux- Native Americans, were invaded by Americans & killed
Josefa- Mexican woman who killed an Amer. man bc he was drunk in her bedroom. she was hanged
Chinese- denied citizenship, forced off into barren-like mines
Native American genocide 
Antebellum south
  • economic conditions for King Cotton:
black belt: where cotton is grown
king cotton: increase in cotton production, leading export crop
^limited urbanization (cities)
limited industrialization (factories)
limited diversity (agriculture or industry)
  • slave revolts:
covert rebellion: "secret", intentionally work slow, misunderstand, break tools, be sick, etc.
led to stereotypes (lazy, steal, etc.)
running away= "stealing your own labor". to see family, afraid of punishment, or econ. harm owner 

overt rebellion: open rebellion (killing masters)

Nat Turner: trusted slave, had visions from God--> felt God calling him to kill whites--> rose up & killed owner --> Nat Turner's revolt, 1831 (blacks that were suspected of being in revolt were killed)
led to whites never fully trusting slaves again
  • white power structure & how whites justified slavery:
power structure: 
elite: top 1%, have economic power (ex. governors), create churches & colleges, 20+ slaves
---
rich
---
middle class: 0-9 slaves serve as status symbol, (lawyers, doctors, bank managers), want to be rich
---
yeomen farmers: no slaves but sell crops to elite to feed slaves
---
hog farmers: pork = energy to feed slaves
---
poor whites: lowest 10%, own no land, not enough $ for food/clothes, but still "better than slaves"
--- 
(all above support slavery) slaves

justification:
1. bible: Noah's ark, Mark of the Canannites, "servant" in new testament, book of Philomen
2. history: Greeks, Romans, great civilizations of world had slaves. 
Aristotle's theory: 2 type of men, the type that think (whites) & the type that work (slaves)
3. legal docs: constitution (3/5th clause), 1801 treaty (international slavery abolished, runaway property restoration), bill of rights (due process- compensation for taken property)
4. science: polygenesis- blacks are diff. species bc diff. origin & look diff. (wrong, bc bi-racials)
5. paternalism: "treat them like they're children", "they're like toddlers"

Politics from 1848-1861
  • major events in period:
election 1848- Zachary Taylor wins (Whig)
5 major issues:
  1. Cali. wants to be free state
  2. Utah & new Mexico territory- what to do w it?
  3. border dispute- TX west border
  4. slave trade in D.C.
  5. runaway slaves
Millard Fillmore = Whig president in 1850
Compromise 1850, 5 parts:
  1. Cali. = free state
  2. organize Utah & New Mexico territory using popular sovereignty
  3. TX give up "extra" territory & get $10 million
  4. stopped slave trade in D.C.
  5. fugitive slave act 1850- jury trial for slaves replaced w special commissioners who get paid extra to send slaves back into slavery, others required to help catch slaves or get jailed, forces northerners to send slaves back south
bunker mentality (south) 
south feels like they're in a bunker/ at war/ being attacked by abolitionists
"all for us or totally against us" mentality
vs. 
slave power conspiracy (north)
believes south trying to take over country- too much power & trying to reimpose slavery on north

Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel: Uncle Tom's Cabin
humanized slaves, Northern whites read it
south printed novels talking about how good slavery is, novel = made up 

Stephen Douglas- democrat. "popular sovereignty" (let the people of territory decide) bc didn't want to take a public stance on slavery & lose voters
-->Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)- people in Kansas & Nebraska decide whether or not to allow slavery. repealed the Missouri Compromise, 1820 which prohibited slavery north of latitude 36°30´
--> race for Kansas 1854-1856 --> Bleeding Kansas 1856 (violence) --> Sack of Lawrence, Kansas 1856 --> 
Preston Brooks caning of Charles Sumner, 1856 (Sumner's speech insulted Preston Brooks, who didn't think that Sumner was of equal standing to duel so he hit him w a cane & Sumner was severely injured) Sumner= martyr in the North, Brooks= hero in the South
--> Pottawatomie Creek Massacre 1856 (abolitionist John Brown was "told by God" to kill anyone who was pro-slavery) North saw him as a hero, South saw him as crazy
Kansas = slave state, 1856. north was more paranoid since south won Kansas, South finally got a win

Know-nothing party: anti- Catholicism- (Irish) "taking away Amer. jobs", "driving down wages", "spreading disease" (poor conditions), "ordered by pope to come here" (papal plot), "can't be loyal to Amer. gov. bc Catholics hold allegiance to foreign gov." (Vatican), etc. 

Republican party 1856: (mostly in N) against slavery & alcohol, had economic plan, pro women's rights

1856 presidential election: Democrats win (have in N & S)- James Buchanan
^ big issues: 
  1. Dred Scott: slave who was taken to the North by owner then taken back to Missouri. owner died, Scott filed lawsuit saying he was free bc was brought into state that abolished slavery. Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)- Roger Taney (racist, chief justice of U.S. sup. crt.) argues blacks aren't citizens= no rights, no state ever gave black people rights, & missouri compromise was unconstitutional bc restricted slavery. the North doesn't like this 
  2. Lincoln-Douglas debates 1858: Abe= republican, Stephen= Democrat. both running for senate seat. Lincoln: agree w abolitionists, attack Scott v. Sandford. Douglas: "no opinion about slavery" (but was pro-slavery, just didn't want to lose votes)
John Brown's raid on Harper's ferry (1859): attacked federal arsenal for weapons for slave rebellion --> trial in Virginia courts: convicted & wanted to be martyr for slavery --> executed
south thinks he's a terrorist/murderer, north thinks he's a hero & is more paranoid about conspiracy bc how rushed his trial was 

Election of 1860- Lincoln won electoral vote, minority-majority president
7 states seceded during lame duck period

Civil war:
  • major military events & battles:
Fort Sumter: army men in South Carolina were running low on food so Lincoln sent food but South Carolina said if they sent it, they would open fire --> Confederate firing on Fort Sumter Apr. 12, 1861
--> Civil war begins= total war/ war of attrition (everyone using all of their resources)

1st battle of bull run (1st battle of civil war)- July 21, 1861
confederates shot  & union ran bc confederates had a little bit more training. confederates took the site & declared it a win. shows how unprepared everyone was
  • major non-military events:
Lincoln's response to secession: naval blockade around confederate coastline to stop shipping, suspend habeas corpus- strong confederates can be arrested & put in jail w/o reason, & build up army to prepare for war --> civil war --> 4 more states secede 

confederate advantages: 
-better generals (Robert E. Lee & Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson)
-better reputation for soldiers= psychological advantage
-cotton diplomacy: think that since they sell cotton to British & French, they are supported by them & their navies can go against Lincoln's blockade. also have $ to buy weapons
-defensive war in south: know land/geography, have sympathetic civilians who provide w food, info., & short supply lines (easier to move supplies)

union advantages:
-more possible troops bc more people
- a lottt more money
-union industry (factories)

Clara Barton & founding of American Red Cross: civilian women volunteer bc not enough doctors

emancipation proclamation 1862: says on Jan. 1, 1863, all slaves in states in rebellion against U.S. (places union doesn't control) are free. none really get free, so why do it?
^gives union more incentive to fight war, on top o trying to keep the union together
military purposes: divert South's attention from war to watching/keeping an eye on their slaves
undermine southern economy bc slaves are the ones who do everything & they don't want the confederacy to win --> covert rebellion
diplomatic tactic: since British & French have abolished slavery, now they would agree w union & not support the confederacy 

election 1864- Lincoln wins
Union Victory Apr. 9, 1865- war ends
^reasons:
war of attrition--> union had better advantages/resources
confederate loss of crucial territories/battles
union naval blockade 1861 undermined cotton diplomacy
poor confederate transportation
confederate fears about slaves rebelling/running away bc of emancipation proclamation
confederate desertion rates (knew they would lose & wanted to go back to families) 
  • effects on black people & slavery:
NY city draft riots (July 1863): immigrants argue they didn't come to free slaves so shouldn't be forced into the military --> attack draft people then african americans


black men joining the army: 54th Massachusetts infantry (paid less than white men, white officers, & segregated union troops). Christian Fleetwood received congressional medal of honor

13th amendment: Dec. 1865- abolished slavery

_____________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 11:
  • plain folk of Old south: (yeomen) non-planters. middle class, white Southerners of 19th century who owned few slaves or none. worked land using family labor instead of slave bc didn't grow cotton. lived w economic self-sufficiency, raised live stock, grew food for families
  • George Fitzhugh: Virginia writer, published racial and slavery-based sociological theories. said slavery would made blacks economically secure and morally civilized
  • free blacks in old south: many descendants of freed slaves, voluntarily liberated by masters, purchased freedom, or ran away. legal restrictions on them in state, prospered as farmers & skilled craftsmen, learned to defend rights in court
  • slave culture: new creation, shaped by african traditions & Amer. values. 
centered on family &  church, drew on African heritage
african influences in music, dances, styles of religious worship, use of herbs to heal
workers lived in barracks-type buildings
slave population grew from natural increase = more even male to female ratio
law did not recognize legality of slave marriages- owners had to consent
danger of families being broken up by sale
named children after other relatives to solidify sense of family continuity 
bc of sales, slave community had higher number of female headed households than whites
slave traders gave little attention to preserving family ties
slave men & women experienced equality of powerlessness
cult of domesticity didn't apply to slave women
women worked in fields
slave men couldn't be economic providers for families or protect wives from abuse by owners
when working "on their own time", men chopped wood,  hunted, fished
women washed, sewed, cared for children
family allowed transmission of values, traditions, survival strategies
distinctive version of Christianity
preachers usually were "self-called" w rhetorical abilities & familiar w Bible
slaves required to sit in back pews in biracial congregations
whites used Christianity to control slaves- white ministers preached about theft & obedience
slave religion practiced secretly at night
"praise meetings"- shouts, dances, emotional interchanges btwn preacher & congregation
found heroes & symbols in Bible to relate to
Christian message of brotherhood & equality of all souls before the Creator
desire for liberty
created neighborhood networks to transmit info btwn plantations
familiar w local landscape, crops, population- knew little about larger world
  • Amistad: 53 slaves took control of the Amistad in 1839 to try to get back to Africa, Amer. vessel seized it. debates about returning the slaves to Cuba or Africa. w abolitionist help, they were freed & most made their way back to Africa
  • slave revolts: 
Gabriel's rebellion in 1800 was followed in 1811 by uprising on sugar plantations upriver from New Orleans, where men & women marched & destroyed city property w sugarcane knives, axes, clubs, some guns. shouted "Freedom or death." troops dispersed them in a battle.

-Denmark Vesey: slave carpenter in Charleston, South Carolina- purchased freedom after winning lottery. took leading role in local African Methodist church. read to co-conspirators accounts of successful slave revolution in Haiti. 1822, plot discovered before they could rebel.

Chapter 12:
  • Abbey Kelley: Quaker, joined Female Anti- slavery society, abolitionist. gave public speeches about slavery. pioneer in early struggle for women's rights. covered more miles & gave more speeches than any other female orator. married to Stephen Foster- abolitionist
  • Owenites: 
-Robert Owen: British factory owner, secular communitarian. created model factory village- strict rules of work discipline & comfortable housing/free public education. promoted communitarianism. 

-New Harmony: est. by ^. hoped to create a "new moral world"
  • Invention of asylum: for the insane. idea that social ills once considered incurable could be eliminated. place afflicted persons in environment where character could be transformed. eventually would become overcrowded & focus was less on rehabilitating, but just keeping them away from society
  • Common school movement: largest effort at institution building- tax supported state school systems open to all children. alternative to moving west to acquire a farm. "silent curriculum"- obedience to authority, be on time, organize day according to predetermined time pds. that changed at ring of a bell (helped prepare students for working in industry). created first real career opportunity for women (teachers)
-Horace Mann: Massachusetts lawyer & Whig politician. director of state's board of edu., leading educational reformer. wanted to restore equality by bringing all classes of children together in common learning experience. argued that it would reinforce social stability by instilling proper discipline
  • Amer. colonization society: idea of end to bondage by colonizing freed slaves. promoted gradual abolition & settlement of black Amer. in Africa. believed slavery was embedded in Amer. life that they would never be truly equal. Africans opposed colonization
  • Lydia Maria Child's "An Appeal in Favor of that Class of Americans called Africans": 1833. insisted that blacks were fellow countrymen, not foreigners or inferior, idea of birthplace should determine who was American- not race
  • Gag rule: House of Rep. adopted it, prohibited consideration of petitions of emancipation in nation's capital. rule was repealed in 1844
  • Dorothea Dix: Massachusetts schoolteacher, leading advocate of more humane treatment of insane. thanks to her, 28 states constructed mental hospitals before civil war.
  • Margaret Fuller: educated at home, became first woman to achieve important position in Amer. journalism (literary editor of New York Tribune) "women had same right as men to develop their talents", transcendentalist idea- freedom meant quest for personal development
  • Amelia Bloomer: 1850s, devised new style of dress consisting of loose-fitting tunic & trousers
Chapter 13:
  • Commodere Perry: commanded Amer. warships to Tokyo Harbor (1853 & 1854). president Millard Fillmore sent him to negotiate trade treaty --> Japan opened 2 ports to Amer. shipping. involved in attack at Veracruz during Mexican-American war
  • Wilmot Proviso: David Wilmot's proposed resolution prohibiting slavery from all territory acquired from Mexico. Democrat & Whig northerners supported it, all southerners opposed
  • free soil party: organized by opponents of slavery's expansion, nominated Martin Van Buren. showed antislavery sentiment spread far beyond abolitionist ranks. "Freedom of the soil" = alternative to permanent economic dependence for Amer. workers. platform called for barring slavery from west & for gov. to provide free homesteads to settlers in the new territories.
  • Crittenden compromise: Senator John Crittenden's compromise plan- would have guaranteed future of slavery in states where it existed, & extended Missouri compromise line to Pacific ocean. seceding states rejected it "too little, too late". upper south & north saw as way to settle sectional differences. Lincoln opposed bc feared reference to land "hereafter acquired" offered South invitation to demand acquisition of Cuba, Mexico, & other territory suited to slavery
Chapter 14:
  • George McClellan: army engineer, assumed command of Union's army of Potomac, welded men into fighting force, reluctant to commit them to battle
  • Robert E. Lee: general, leading southern commander. battle field technician, offered command Union army but chose to fight for Confederacy bc devoted to Virginia
  • Seven Days' campaign: series of engagements in June 1862, Lee blunted McClellan's attacks & forced him to withdraw back to Washington D.C.
  • Battle of Antietam: Maryland. McClellan & army of Potomac repelled Lee's advance--> Lee forced to retreat --> union claimed as victory
  • Battle of Fredericksburg: 1862, confederates defeated union when General Ambrose Burnside (replaced McClellan) assaulted Lee's army, which was entrenched on heights
  • Ulysses S. Grant: commissioned as colonel
  • Battle of Forts Henry & Donelson: forts captured by ^, Feb. 1862- 1st significant Union victory in West
  • David Farragut: admiral, commanded naval forces to steam into New Orleans, giving Union control of South's largest city & rich sugar plantation parishes
  • Benjamin Butler: general, begun a plan of treating escaped blacks as contraband of war (property of military value subject to confiscation)
  • homestead act: offered 160 acres of free public land to settlers in the west, to spur agricultural development. took effect on Jan. 1, 1863, tried to implement a vision of freedom
  • union pacific & central pacific: companies chartered in 1862 & charged w building railroad from Missouri river to Pacific coast (internal improvements)
  • financing the war: gov. increased tariff (which promoted further growth of northern industry), new taxes on production & consumption of goods, enacted nation's 1st income tax. borrowed more than $2 billion by selling interest-bearing bonds (led to immense national debt), printed more than $400 million worth of paper money ("greenbacks", money that must be accepted for nearly all public & private payments & debts), established sys. of nationally chartered banks (required to purchase gov. bonds & given right to issue bank notes as currency)
  • battle of Gettysburg: July 1–3, 1863, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, largest number of casualties of the entire war, turning point. Union defeated attacks by Confederate, ending Lee's attempt to invade the North
  • battle of Vicksburg: Grant launched siege, July 4, 1863- Vicksburg surrendered. confederate loss. Mississippi Valley lay in Union hands. Gettysburg & Vicksburg defeats- blow to southern morale
  • battle of Shiloh: (Pittsburg landing) surprise Confederate attack. overnight, union got reinforcement --> counterattack. Confederate forced to retreat, ending hopes of blocking the Union advance into northern Mississippi
  • William T. Sherman: Union general, 1864- entered Atlanta, seized Georgia's main railroad center
  • Sea Islands experiment: most famous "rehearsal for reconstruction", many groups had own view of how transition to freedom should be organized for slaves. issue of whether landownership should accompany black freedom
  • Appomattox courthouse: Virginia, where Lee surrendered on April 9 1865

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