Friday, December 4, 2015

General Psychology Comprehensive Final Exam review

Chap. 1
  • psychology: scientific study of behav. & mental processes
  • 2 major roots of psych.: philosophy & physical sciences
  • perspectives approach: approach psych. from diff. perspectives- biological (genes, body), evolutionary (adaptation), cognitive (thinking influences behavior), social (interactions w others), developmental (mind & behav. change), clinical (psych. processes, abnormal thoughts/feelings), & individual (personality & temperament) 
  • what do the authors of your text believe regarding the future of psych.? "will be one of combining & integrating new & existing perspectives"
  • what is the current trend in many psych. grad. school programs? pursue coursework & research in particular area of interest
  • how did ancient physicians contribute to contemporary psych.? provided natural, not supernatural explanations for their observations
  • describe 1st official experiment in psych.: Wilhelm Wundt, 1879. test of reaction time- how quickly, after hearing a ball drop onto a platform, could a person respond by striking a telegraph key?
Chap. 2
  • according to your text, how is "science" described today? method for learning about reality through systematic observation & experimentation
  • critical thinking: ability to think clearly, rationally, & independently
  • peer review: process of having other experts examine research prior to its publication
  • replication: repeating an experiment & producing same results
  • meta-analysis: statistical analysis of many previous experiments on a single topic
  • informed consent: permission from participant after risks & benefits are explained
  • identify reasons for using animals in research: benefit health of humans & animals
Chap. 3
  • what is the relationship btwn nature & nurture? intertwined, influence each other
  • how many chromosomes are contributed by the union of an egg or sperm cell? 46
  • what is the likelihood of your sharing an allele w a parent or sibling? 1/2
  • describe genetic make-up of identical twins: identical genotypes
  • what is the major factor distinguishing human intelligence from other species? richness & complexity of social behavior supported by the human brain
  • what is the common factor that most influences the social behav. of all species? mating system, available sources food, water , exposure to predators & competition
  • epigenetics: study of gene-environment interactions in the production of phenotype
Chap. 4
  • what is the impact of myelination of a neuron? makes neural signaling faster & energy efficient, skips over myelinated sections
  • neurotransmitters: chemical messengers that communicate across a synapse
  • describe the sequence of an action potential: resting w -70 mV potassium inside & +40mV sodium outside--> stimulation--> threshold--> depolarization--> repolarization--> propagated down axon terminal
  • describe the corpus collosum: wide band of axons, connect right & left cerebral hemispheres
  • neurons: cell of nerv. sys. that's specialized for sending & receiving neural messages
  • what are 2 major divisions of the nervous sys.? 
1. central: processes sensory date, initiates response. brain. spinal cord (connects CNS to PNS)
2. peripheral: carries message to & from CNS. 2 parts: 
        1. somatic nervous sys.: controls voluntary body functions. brings sensory input back to CNS.
        2. autonomic nervous sys.: controls involuntary body functions. homeostasis. 2 parts:
             1. sympathetic nervous sys.: fight or flight. immediate threats.
             2. parasympathetic nervous sys.: rest & repair. stores energy. 

Chap. 6
  • circadian rhythm: daily biological rhythm, sleep-wake cycle
  • what is the major chemical in marijuana? tetrahydrocannabinal 
  • explain why Sigmund Freud became disenchanted w using cocaine: potentially addictive
  • what is the relationship btwn alcohol consumption & aggression? positive (^ = ^)
  • which drugs are involved w the majority of suicides? alcohol 
  • how does hypnosis affect memory? promotes false recollections, more susceptible to suggestion
  • what is the role of nicotine on the body? mimics action of acetylcholine- increasing heart rate & blood pressure, reducing fatigue, & improving cognitive performance, & producing muscular relaxation
Chap. 7
  • what is the relationship btwn motivation & emotions? tightly related, share experience of subjective feelings, similar processes & brain structures, overlapping characteristics
  • describe an effective weight loss plan: sustainable lifestyle changes, healthier eating, exercise
  • according to textbook, which quality of happiness is listed at the top of the list by the major of people? intimacy
  • describe self-actualization: state of having fulfilled your potential
  • what is a major advantage of emotions? produce arousal -> action -> can be life-saving
  • how do the right & left hemispheres play a role in processing emotions? activity in left hemi. correlates w experience of positive emotions while activity in right hemi. correlates w negative emotions
  • display rules: cultural norm that specifies when, where, & how person should express emotion
Chap. 8
  • learning: relatively permanent change in behav. due to experience
  • application of-
UCS: stimulus elicits response w/o prior experience
UCR: response to unconditioned stimulus
NS: neutral, new stimulus introduced
CS: ^same stimulus, event whose significance is learned through classical conditioning
CR: same response as USR, learned through classical conditioning
  • describe distinction btwn classical & operant conditioning: classical: association btwn 2 stimuli. operant: behavior associated w consequences
  • describe observational learning: ability to learn from watching others 
  • describe Edward Tolman's experiment w rats in mazes: rats explore mazes w/o food reinforcement. when food was placed in goal boxes of mazes, unreinforced rats performed as well as rats that had been reinforced all along. rats' ability to learn in absence of reinforcement= latent learning
  • what is token economy? systerm of behav. modification, reward good behav. w "tokens", increase frequency of desirable behav.
  • explain systematic desensitization: type of counter conditioning in which people relax while being exposed to stimuli that elicit fear
Chap. 9
  • memory: ability to retain knowledge
  • what is the correct order of the process of memory? encoding--> storage--> retrieval 
  • identify Atkinson & Shiffrin model of memory- correct order: sensory input --> sensory memory --> short term--> long term
  • describe levels of processing theory: depth of processing (shallow--> deep) applied to info that predicts ease of retrieval
  • describe state-dependent memory: cues from internal physiological states retrieve memory
  • memory reconstruction: rebuilding of memory out of stored elements
  • which method is mostly used for measuring the retention of material in long term memory? method of savings- compares rate of learning material the first time to rate of learning same material a second time
Chap. 11
  • describe fetal alcohol syndrome: produces abnormality & cognitive/behavioral probs
  • list in order the sequence of motor development in infancy: head to toe: muscle of neck to look around & shoulders --> torso to sit --> crawl --> leg muscles to support weight standing --> improve movement & coordination to jump, hop, etc. midline: bat at toys above crib --> grasp any object --> release objects
  • describe results of Harry Harlow study of rhesus monkeys & attachment: mother's ability to provide contact comfort is critical in forming a strong attachment 
  • describe authoritative parenting style: high support & regulation
  • describe Erikson's theory of psychosocial dev.- identity & intimacy: 
birth- 18 mo.: trust vs. mistrust- child views world as safe/dependable place
18 mo.- 3 yr.: autonomy vs. shame/doubt- begins to explore, independence
3 yr.- 6 yr.: initiate vs. guilt- begins to act on the world, sense of responsibility
6 yr.- 12 yr.: industry vs. inferiority- pride & competence, self confidence
adolescence: identity vs. role confusion- "who am i?". failure to achieve leads to probs w next stages
young adulthood: intimacy vs. isolation- sense of connectedness, stable/intimate relationships
midlife: generativity vs. stagnation- "put back" energy into family/work/community
late adulthood: integrity vs. despair- self-acceptance/calm & meaningfulness in life
  • what is the current research on teen drug use & teens spending time w parents? less time w parents --> more likely to go to substance abuse
  • describe effects of mothers' using alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine during pregnancy: risk for premature birth & baby being underweight
Chap. 12
  • personality: characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, & behaving
  • describe Freud's theory of personality dev.- psychosexual stages: 
oral stage: (birth-1 yr.) pleasure obtained by sucking
anal stage: (1 yr.-3 yr.) conflict btwn child's ability to eliminate wastes at will vs. societal expectations of toilet training 
phallic stage: (3 yr.- 6 yr.) Oedipus & Electra complexes (develop sexual feelings for parent of opposite sex & suppressing it) --> identification w same-sex parent
latency stage: (6 yr.- 12 yr.) focus on internalization of society's rules
genital stage: (12 yr. +) focus on adult sexual interests & behaviors
  • describe Big 5 & its impact across diverse cultures: trait theory, identifies 5 main characteristics that account for the majority of individual differences in personality

impact across diverse cultures: personality traits represent universal human characteristics
  • describe the self & the role of the environment in shaping it: self: patterns of thought, feelings, & actions we perceive in our own minds. shapes & shaped by social environment
  • describe self-esteem: judgement on value of self 
  • describe influence of shared & non-shared experiences in personality dev.: environmental experiences affect all members of family/group but non-shared experiences only affect single indiv. creates variation seen in population's personality
  • what is an advantage of personality inventories? large #, quickly, inexpensively
Chap. 13
  • how do we usually make quick assessments of others? focus on subset of traits instead of trying to sum up the entire person
  • just-world belief: assume good things happen to good people, & bad things happen to bad people
  • stereotypes: simplified set of traits associated w membership in group/category
  • describe the "jigsaw" classroom experiment: designed to reduce racial tensions in newly segregated school districts, children in groups are assigned part of an answer that group needs to learn --> interdependence, listening, & helping each other
  • how do people choose friends & romantic partners? proximity, similar attitudes, race, religion, values, ethnicity, education, age, etc.
  • describe the bystander effect: decreased likelihood of helping others as # of bystanders increase
  • "mere-exposure effect": repeated exposure increases liking 
Chap. 14
  • why is labeling an indiv.'s behav. & mental processes important? deciding if they're abnormal is the 1st step to labeling the disorder & providing treatment
  • abnormal behav.: behav. that's not typical, usual, or regular
  • describe bipolar disorder: mood disorder- alternating pds. of mania & depression
  • describe someone more prone to dev. depression: younger, female, alcohol use, recent loss of important relationship, genetic predisposition, lower socioeconomic status
  • describe someone who might "intend" to commit suicide: women, Native American, single
  • antisocial personality disorder: lack of remorse, empathy, or regard for social rules
  • why have autism rates increased over the past 2 decades? increased awareness among parents & healthcare providers, relaxed application of diagnostic criteria
  • what is the role of genetics in schizophrenia? genetic predisposition, enlarged ventricles
Chap. 15
  • psychotherapy: treatment designed to improve symptoms of disorder through convo.
  • describe an ideal client for group therapy: feels isolated/ostracized 
  • what is the benefit of group therapy? cost-effectiveness, hope to members seeing others make progress, decreases sense of isolation
  • what is a challenge faced by family therapists? maintaining confidentiality
  • how has managed care affected treatment for psychological disorders? treatment length, frequency, type, etc. managed by untrained (insurance companies)
  • what is the most popular method for treating major depressive disorders today? meds
  • who is credited w being the first person to use "talk therapy"? Sigmund Freud
  • what discovery led to a traumatic decrease in hospitalization in the U.S. btwn 1955-2000? phenothiazines to treat schizophrenia
Chap. 16
  • stress: emotional state resulting from perception of threat & danger
  • stressor: stimulus that serves as a source of stress
  • describe General Adaptation Syndrome: Han Selye's 3 stage model for an organism's response to stressors: alarm reaction (when 1st perceiving stressor) --> resistance (body tries to balance arousal & calm) --> exhaustion (if lasts long time, low strength & energy)
  • describe Holmes & Rahe scales: predict vulnerability to physical illness & psych. disorder
  • describe effects of cumulative stress on an indiv.: adds up & feels as if something larger
  • describe role of stress on immune sys.: short- term: can be beneficial. long term: more illnesses, disease vulnerability
  • describe type A personality & relationship w heart attacks & strokes: competitive/workaholic= more susceptible to heart disease. pattern of interpersonal hostility, suspicious, angry, resentful --> heart probs

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