Monday, November 2, 2015

exam # 1 review | ch. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10

Chapter 1:

  • basic model of communication: 

-encoding: putting thoughts into words
-decoding: attaching meaning to a message
  • dialect: imposition of a region on a language
  • accent: imposition of a language on a language
  • pitch: highness or lowness of voice
  • inflection: rise & fall of voice (~~~~~~)
  • monotone: unchanging in pitch ( ----------)
  • 5 characteristics of communication:
  1. it's a dynamic process: ongoing/continuous
  2. it's unrepeatable: every contact is different, never the same
  3. it's irreversible: can't take it back/erase impact
  4. it's learned: environment/words/actions teach you what works & what doesn't
  5. it's characterized by wholeness & nonsummativity: more than the sum of it's parts
  • linear model of communication (one way): 

  • transactional model of communication (back & forth): 

Chapter 2:
  • social comparison theory: people compare themselves to others to get a feel for how their talents/abilities/qualities measure up
  • rejection: negation/disagreement w a self-appraisal
  • disconfirming: communication that denies another person's significance
Chapter 3: 
  • selective exposure: exposing self to people/messages that confirm own existing beliefs/values
  • attribution theory: assigning meaning to behaviors by ascribing motives & causes
Chapter 4:
  • hearing: physiological process of receiving sound
  • listening: evaluating & attaching meaning to what you hear
  • Hurier model/stages of listening:
  1. hearing
  2. understanding/attending
  3. remembering
  4. interpreting
  5. evaluating/analyzing
  6. responding (verbally/non-verbally)
  • styles of listening:
  1. people oriented: focus on emotions & interest of others
  2. action oriented:  focus on clarity & preciseness (how to solve a problem)
  3. content oriented:  focus on facts & details
  4. time oriented:  focus on efficiency & succinctness
  • types of listening:
  1. appreciative: entertainment
  2. comprehensive: acquire info
  3. critical/deliberate: make an evaluation
  4. empathetic: therapeutic, emotional, understanding
Chapter 6:
  • paralinguistics: how you speak/variations in voice. non-verbal aspect of voice
  • proxemics: non-verbal space/distance
  • haptics: non-verbal touch
  • illustrators: non-verbal bodily cues to reinforce message
  • regulators: steer convo, influence turn taking
  • adaptors: unintentional movement, "nervous habits"
Chapter 10:
  • power/leadership types:
-reward: someone has something that you want, they provide you w something (ex. job, $, perks, etc.)
-coercive: someone being forceful/threatening, negative consequences (ex. boycotts)
-expert: someone w special knowledge/skill/background/training (ex. doctors)
-legitimate: someone w a position/role higher than you, who they are (ex. teacher, police, employer)
-referent: someone you respect/admire (ex. older sibling, celebrity) 
-persuasive: someone w well thought out arguments, logical appeal (ex. lawyers)
  • trigger cues: stimulate automatic response
  1. reciprocation (you owe me)
  2. social proof (everyone else is in favor of it)
  3. consistency (it's worked many times before)
  4. liking (if you love me, support my ideas)
  5. authority (bc i want you to)
  6. scarcity (do it before you can't do it anymore)
  • Maslow's hierarchy of needs:

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