Thursday, November 5, 2015

HIST 1301 exam # 3 | review

Federalist Era (1789-1801) 
  • George Washington presidency:
Electoral college chose him
Didn't like factions
Judiciary act (1789): "an Act to Establish the Judicial Courts of the United States" (created Supreme court)
Created a cabinet-
>>secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson (anti-federalist, foreign policy experience, was upper class, liked lower class)

>>secretary of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton (federalist, was lower class, liked upper class). wanted to stabilize finances & credit of U.S., create overseas trade empire, tie wealthy to the government (get wealthy's support), & good relations w British (bc trade = $).

3 part plan:
foreign debt- pay back $ U.S. borrowed from other countries during revolutionary war so that U.S. could be seen as "trustworthy"
domestic debt- pay back $ U.S. owes to Amer. citizens- promissory notes. Jefferson didn't like this bc some lower class had to sell to upper class/speculators
state debt- central gov. pay off $ states borrowed to pay war. controversial: some states already taxed themselves to pay off the debt

created 1st bank of U.S. (1791-1811)
"justified by necessary & proper clause" (regulate currency, commerce, & taxes)
^anti-federalists don't agree bc it's not enumerated 
3 purposes:

  1. place to put tax $
  2. provide pool of capital for investment (factories/industrialists)
  3. regulate currency (inflation & deflation extremes)

Whiskey tax= "enumerated power" (excise tax)
controversial: tax is really high
farmers are angry bc they turn wheat into whiskey for extra $ --> refuse to pay --> hang tax collectors in effigy -->
Whiskey rebellion (1792-1794)
federalists see as anarchy --> send army to end "rebellion" --> no rebellion bc farmers left
anti-federalists don't see a problem bc there was no rebellion when the army got there

>>secretary of War: Henry Knox
handles Native American relations
says they own the land bc they were there first
if want the land: have to have a treaty or "just/defensive" war
  • John Adams presidency: John Adams vs. Thomas Jefferson, 1796
federalists --> Federalist party (1796), strongest in North 
anti-federalists --> Democratic-Republicans (1796), strongest in South & West

presidency is taken up w foreign policy (French revolution)

Storming of Bastille- July 14, 1789, Amer. saw it as a good thing, getting rid of a monarchy & becoming a republic, & bc French was also fighting British

European/Napoleonic war (1792-1815)
Reign of terror: in France, 1793-1794, executions of supporters of the old regime
Federalists turn against France bc seen as anarchy

XYZ affair: Federalists go to France to sign trade agreements --> French wanted $ (bribe) --> Federalists offended/angry ------------>
Quasi war (naval war, controversial: Congress must declare war but they didn't. Federalists thought it would make the party stronger
Quasi war strengthens Democratic- Republican party instead
pay for navy --> taxes on land/houses/slaves --> farmers angry bc taxes for a war they didn't want --> John Fries Rebellion

Federalists pass Alien Acts (1798)- targets immigrants so that the naturalization pd. would be 14 yrs instead of 5, so that they can't vote for Democratic-Republicans. controversy: president can imprison/deport any immigrant w/o reason/trial/warrant

Sedition act (1798): illegal to write/publish false/scandalous/malicious writing about gov.
Matthew Lyon: supported Democratic- Republicans, criticized John Adams --> arrested 
Luther Baldwin: made comment on how cannons at a parade for John Adams were shot provocatively & he wouldn't care if it shot through the president's butt --> arrested
Democratic-Republicans didn't support sedition acts

Election 1800: Jefferson vs. Adams: Jefferson won= Democratic- Republicans won
lame duck period (Federalists still in charge) --> midnight appointments (pick people to fill bureaucracy w Federalists) --> Judiciary act 1801 (6 new courts, 16 new district courts, John Marshall= Supreme court justice)

Democratic Republican Era (1801-1824)
  • Thomas Jefferson presidency: 
Democratic- Republicans get rid of Federalist things they didn't like (pardons Lyon & Baldwin, gets rid of whiskey & land/house/slave taxes-which downsizes navy, gets rid of alien acts) 

impeachment trials: get rid of Federalist judges for "high crimes & MISDEMEANORS"
John Pickering: public intoxication
Samuel Chase: failed impeachment bc can't impeach on political opinions
William Marbury: was promised a job of Justice of Peace but letter was never delivered --> lawsuit:
Marbury v. Madison 1803: section of judiciary act that let officials deliver commissions was unconstitutional so he doesn't get the job

Jefferson wants Mississippi river, New Orleans, & port of Mobile, French need $= willing to sell (except port of Mobile). Has to use necessary & proper clause bc can't buy territory on enumerated
Meriwether Lewis & William Clark explore that land, w help from Sacajawea, a Shoshone Indian
3 reasons for Lewis & Clark expedition: 
  1. explore Oregon territory & look for Northwest passage
  2. scientific expedition: gather info about land/what's out there
  3. meeting w Shoshone native Americans (friendly bc they were w Sacajawea)
U.S. economy rebuilding --> neutral shipping rights (how neutral countries trade w countries at war)
condition: neutral nation can't trade war materials. British & French at war (European wars) so they count coal, timber, food, etc. as war materials --> British stop American ships from trading w French.
British buy the supplies but French would pay more.

impressment of sailors: men forced into British navy but they don't want to be in it bc low pay, disease, harsh discipline, no freedom, away from land & family --> desert ships at neutral ports (U.S.)
U.S. allows them to be citizens & they become sailors or even join U.S. navy bc better treatment
Chesapeake (U.S. ship) & Leopard (British ship): British steal men back from Americans. Amer. want to go to war but Jefferson said no bc they'd lose 
embargo act 1807: no trade w anyone= bad for Amer. economy --> non-intercourse act 1809: no trade w British
North doesn't like bc they trade w Canada (British owned) --> smuggling --> Martial law
  • James Madison presidency:  Election 1808
Democratic- Republican

War Hawks w/in party: 1st post-revolutionary war generation, want war w Britain but:
Britain has a blockade around American ports, American navy can't do anything

-War of 1812, "2nd war of independence": 
battles against Native Americans & Britain
Tecumseh (Britain's side) creates camp to keep Americans from invading Canada (battle of the Thames), British were supposed to send reinforcement but didn't --> Shawnee Indians die --> have to give up land in Ohio
Massacre at Fort Mims: Baton Rouge killed, Americans angry --> Battle of Horseshoe Bend: non-assimilated & assimilated Creek Indians' land taken

Battle of put-in-bay: only victory of U.S., stopped British invasion of America
^Commodore William Hazard Perry: in charge of Amer. navy at Great lakes
Battle of Baltimore: British tried to burn Baltimore but Fort McHenry withstood
Capture of D.C.: British burned everything except office of patents/copyrights
Treaty of Ghent: Dec. 24, 1814, ends war, doesn't solve issues --> slaves that escaped to Britain were supposed to be returned but weren't
Battle of New Orleans: Jackson led, Americans win --> "Democratic- Republicans won the war" --> get rid of Federalists --->
  • Era of good feelings (James Monroe: 1815-1824): only 1 political party
adopted Federalist ideas --> new policies:
-internal improvement: infrastructure, bridges, roads, ports, etc.
-2nd bank of U.S. (1816): brought back bc it worked as safe place for tax $, regulated currency, pool of capital for factories/industrialists
-protective tariff: on imported goods, to protect Amer. merchants/factories/workers

-political & foreign policy issues:
Adams-Onis (transcontinental) treaty: Quincy Adams & Onis Gonzales
Wanted Florida & Port of Mobile
Spain sold Florida to U.S. for $5 million. U.S. promised to not invade U.S.-Spanish border

Missouri compromise (1820): Missouri petitioned to be state
it would tip the balance btwn slave/non-slave states
Maine also wanted to be it's own state
Missouri= slave state, Maine= non-slave state

Native Americans & westward expansion
  • assimilate vs. war:
treaty indians: give up land to have peace/avoid war & bc Americans promised they could keep the rest of their land
resistance: battle of fallen timbers (1794) --> treaty of Grenville (1795)

Tecumseh asked Creek Indians for help but they assimilated 
few that refused: Baton Rouge- attack Americans at Fort Mims

Cherokee Indians assimilated to keep land. had written language, converted religion, Amer. clothes, names, schools, government based on U.S. constitution, farmers --> private property --> cotton --> slaves, extremes of wealth & poverty
  • Louisiana purchase: (under Jefferson's presidency) had to abandon "only enumerated powers" mindset bc constitution said nothing about buying land from foreign power
^treaty said that all free inhabitants would enjoy rights of citizens (women, free blacks, Indians, etc.)
free slaves lost freedoms
deteriorating Indian relations
movement of Indians to west of App. mountains
Indians outnumbered --> should they assimilate?
  • Tecumseh & Tenskwawatawa docs
  • War of 1812 effects on Indians: (War of 1812 details previously mentioned)
Battle of Thames: Canadian betrayal --> Shawnee Indians die --> have to give up land in Ohio
Battle of Horseshoe Bend: Baton Rouge defeated --> Creek Indians get punished & land is taken
  • Indian removal act: made Indians relocate to West of Mississippi bc wanted their good farmland. North Indians --> Kansas & Nebraska, South Indians --> Oklahoma
Trail of Tears: removal of Indians, grabbed & put in stockades, only have the possessions they had w them/grabbed <-- ethnic cleansing

Economic conditions
  • North vs. South development (1800-1820):
Yeomen farmers: in North & West, subsistence farmers (grow food to provide for family), lower class
economy improves --> $ supply= more stable
sell extra food (wheat) to Europe (bc there's war there) --> $$ --> higher standards of living = luxary goods
Northern middle class is expanding (buying consumer goods)
Southern lower class is expanding (plantation agriculture- growing to sell), cotton
cotton gin created by Eli Whitney --> cotton production spreads --> slaves are more valuable 

Panic of 1819:
Napoleonic wars end --> farmers' goods not needed 
-bank failures: regulation of currency decreased extremes of inflation & deflation, which were gambled on --> bankrupt --> your $$ in bank = gone
-cotton prices: go up --> try to find other sources for cotton (India)
-land ventures: land speculators buying up land (that was taken from Creek & Shawnee Indians)
since farmers aren't making $, they aren't buying land from speculators so demand & prices go down.
Depression shows that the U.S. = market economy (buyers & sellers)
  • major transportation changes:
transportation & information revolution
effects onsocietyeconomypolitics

road building: benefits trade, pay to use, $ used for road maintenance to keep tax low (state paid)
paved road expansion: national road (funded by government), goes east to west

steamboat (Robert Fulton): goes against current= can use on Mississippi river, goes north to south. 
New Orleans --> Natchez, Mississippi --> Memphis, Tennessee --> St. Louis, Missouri --> switch to keel boats bc too shallow --> Minneapolis, Minnesota
can transport goods, trading centers were built along the river= merchants, hotels, saloons, farmers
limitations: fuel source = coal. faster = more coal for boiler --> hotter --> overheat --> blow up

canal: Erie canal (state paid), canal locks (interconnected series of locks that raise & lower water lock gates) 
limitations: need water, flat land (bc can't go through mountains), doesn't work in cold weather (frozen water) --> 

railroad expansion: to overcome canal limitations (goes over mountains, deserts, don't need to stop during cold weather)
limitations: expensive (land, tracks, employees, etc.), different gauges. South & North gauges different (south excluded)
  • Industrial revolution:
putting out system: put work out to others --> lower prices, more style/choices; limitations: can't oversee bc workers work at home 
textile production: fabrics/clothing. benefits: more colors/patterns/styles, more available to lower/middle class, mass produced = cheaper 

factories: centralize production in 1 location so can oversee
long, narrow rectangle (to get natural light), near water (hydroelectric power for looms)
  • Lowell Mills & Lowell Mill Girls:
Francis Cabot Lowell: gets Paul Moody's help to memories British textile mills & create in Boston
Lowell Mill Girls: unmarried, not many job choices, paid less, can work longer than children, "easier to control", "no unions/strikes", expect to marry then leave, surplus of women bc men in West
have to overcome British perception of Mill girls ("prostitutes")
they take the jobs bc: pay for male relatives' college, not many other jobs, higher wages, social life, dowry

Andrew Jackson (from Tennesee)

end of era of good feelings
"corrupt bargain" -Henry Clay
says nothing about big issues= can't make enemies
attacks Adams (anti-intellectual strain)
log cabin myth ("i'm just like you")

Vice president: John Calhoun (S. Carolina)
Secretary of State: Martin Van Buren (New York)
  • growth of Democratic & Whig political parties:
political parties:

  1.  mobilize voters (free BBQs, drinking, vote as a group after a party)
  2. raise $ to support candidate ($$ for ^ parties)
  3. select candidates
  4. pick candidates at conventions
  5. have rallies/parades/picnics/BBQs --> excitement
  6. create own newspapers from parties' POV
  7. scandal/personal attacks/throwing shade
Democratic party is strong in the South & West
  1. majority rules (doesn't always work bc tyranny of majority, takes away minority rights)
  2. limited national government 
  3. Federal government needs to protect ordinary people against power of elite
Whig party: loyal opponents of King
thought Andrew Jackson was acting like a King/Tyrant bc he veto'd anything he didn't like.
Whigs wanted to recharter bank --> Jackson vetoes
  • effects of political changes in period:
universal white manhood suffrage: all white men can vote, takes away women & free black men's rights 
rise of mass political parties
  • major events during presidency:
1. protective tariff: North likes, South & West don't (farmers/consumers). Calhoun wrote: Tariff of Abominations (1828) to show North how bad tariffs were --> it passes (which is the opposite of what Calhoun wanted) --> Calhoun wrote: South Carolina Exposition and Protest to protest Tariff of Abominations

ideas of South Carolina Exposition and Protest:
nullification (if state thinks law passed by Congress = unconstitutional --> nullify/don't enforce in that state)
states give Federal Government the power, so states can limit/check

Hayne-Webster debate (West = angry at North for passing a law they didn't like)
Hayne uses Calhoun's ideas, Webster gives North's response: the supreme court, not the state, determines if laws are constitutional & the people give the Federal government power, not states

nullification crisis (1832): Congress pass another tariff that South Carolina doesn't agree w. -->
force bill: sent military into South Carolina --> Henry Clay creates compromise: pay taxes & Congress will lower them --> deescalates 

2. Indian removal act

3. 2nd bank of U.S.- head of bank: Nicholas Biddle. Jackson destroys bank by taking out $ (w help of Roger B. Taney) --> bankruptcy
  • economic changes in the period:
land speculation --> $ circulates faster --> inflation --> Specie Circular (1836): people who bought land had to pay using $ backed by gold (specie) --> deflation
led to economy crashing & panic of 1837 (during Van Buren's presidency)

  • Liberal Christian groups:
-Unitarians: all humans worship same God, should "unite", humans are born good (reject original sin), all can be saved (reject predestination), reason comes from God, not bible, active in reform movements, mostly in Massachusetts, mostly middle class. William Ellery Channing. "Humans are too good"

-Universalists: universal salvation, rejected predestination & original sin also. people can be in Hell for a pd. of time but eventually will be saved. Throughout New England. John Murray. "God is too good"

-Transcendentalism: rise above/go beyond mind/senses/proof/experience. Intuition comes directly from God. meditation, nature, get away from human noise
  • Evangelical Christian groups:
evangelists: traveling preachers
some evangelical denominations: methodists, baptists 
every person was a "moral free agent"
didn't use market society
railed against greed & indifference to welfare of others= sins
ministers promoted controlled individualism= essence of freedom
importance of industry, sobriety, self-discipline
  • Second Great Awakening:
popular religious revivals --> added religious underpinning to celebration of personal self-improvement/reliance/determination
spread to all regions of country & democratized Amer. Christianity
stressed right of private judgement in spiritual matters
possibility of universal salvation through faith & good works
revivalist ministers used market revolution to spread message
opening of religion to mass participation
showed how end of gov. support for established churches --> religious pluralism
emergence of Mormonism

Chapter 8: 
  • Edmond Genet: French envoy, trying to arouse support for his beleaguered government, commissioned Amer. ships to attack British ships under French flag. Washington asked for his recall.
  • Jay's treaty: John Jay went to Britain to present objections
treaty had nothing about Britain stopping impressment/rights of American shipping
Brit. only agreed to leave outposts on western frontier
U.S. was to favor British imported goods 
treaty cancelled American-French alliance & recognized Bri. economic & naval supremacy
sharpened political divide in U.S. --> formation of organized opposition party
  • rights of women & women & the Republic:
-Mary Wollstonecraft: published A Vindication of the Rights of Women. call for more access to education & paid employment
-Hannah Adams: 1st Amer. woman to support herself as an author (published religious history & New England history)
-Judith Sargent Murray: one of the era's most accomplished women, essays for Massachusetts Magazine, pen name = "The Gleaner". studied alongside brother
  • Haitian revolution:  
-Saint Domingue: jewel of French overseas empire, slave revolution (1791)
-Toussaint L'Ouverture: educated slave, led slaves
  • Gabriel's rebellion: planned rebellion (kill some whites & hold some hostage) was betrayed by a scared slave. whites met them & executed the Africans (failed rebellion)
  • Fletcher v. Peck (1810): Court extended judicial review to state laws
  • Barbary wars: 1st encounter w Islamic world
  • Macon's bill #2: allow trade to resume but if France or Britain interfered w Amer. rights, embargo act would be back
Chapter 9:
  • telegraphs: instant communication, invented by Samuel F.B. Morse, used morse code, messages sent over electric wires --> sped flow of info & brought uniformity to prices
  • American sys. of manufacturers: factories produced textiles, goods, tools, etc., relied on mass production of interchangeable parts, could be rapidly assembled.
  • Irish & German immigration: freedom appealed to everyone in Europe
Irish: Great famine (1845-1851) blight destroyed crop --> potato famine --> go to America --> take any job, any wage --> replace American workers
Catholic --> discrimination --> Nativists (feared impact of immigration on American political & social life)
German: failed revolution of 1848 in Europe (wanted democracy) --> monarchs reasserted power --> went to America
  • Dartmouth college v. Woodward (1819): Sup. crt. defined corporate charters issued by state legislatures as contracts, future lawmakers can't alter/rescind
  • Gibbons v. Oden (1824): ^5 years later, court struck down monopoly the NY legislature granted for steamboat navigation
  • Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842): nothing illegal about strikes or unions
  • John O'Sullivan: NY journalist, "manifest destiny" (U.S. had divine mission to occupy all of North Amer.)
  • John Jacob Astor: (son of poor German butcher who emigrated to U.S.) shipped furs to China & imported teas & silk, invested wealth in Manhattan real estate, built Astor house --> nation's most famous hotel. died the richest man in the U.S.
Chapter 10:
  • Dorr War: Rhode Island required voters to own real estate valued at $134 --> many unable to vote --> people's convention drafted new state constitution where all WHITE men could vote --> reformers ratified their constitution in extralegal referendum --> federal troops came --> Dorr arrested for treason --> failed rebellion
  • Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America: French writer visited U.S. & wrote Democracy in America: account of society in midst of political transformation. 5 values critical to America's success: liberty, egalitarianism, individualism, populism, laissez-faire 
  • information revolution: market revolution --> expansion of public sphere --> explosion in printing --> information revolution. steam power in newspaper printing --> increase in output & mass circulation. new styles of journalism, growth of reading public 
  • American sys.: blueprint for gov.-promoted economic development that James Madison put forward. rests on new national bank, tariff on important manufactured goods to protect Amer. industry, & federal financing of improved roads & canals
  • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819): bank is a legit. exercise of congressional authority under Constitution's clause "necessary & proper" laws --> Maryland could not tax the bank
  • John Tallmadge: Republican congressman (NY), intro of more slaves should be prohibited, children of those already in Missouri be freed at 25 yrs old --> controversy: passed in the House, died in the Senate --> Missouri Compromise 
  • US & Latin American wars of independence: Spain's colonies rebelled --> independent nations --> U.S. extended diplomatic recognition to the new Latin American republics
Parallels: Mother country making colonies contribute to its finances, rebelled, independence
Latin American constitutions more democratic, gave everyone the right to vote
-Monroe Doctrine: James Monroe "how U.S. regards the west", good IDEA but can't enforce.
1. West hemisphere is closed to colonization (Europe can't colonize N. or S. Amer.)
2. U.S. won't get involved in Europe's wars
3. warned European powers not to interfere w Latin America
  • Johnson v. M'Intosh (1823): Indians not owners of their land but had "right of occupancy" bc they weren't farmers, they were nomads
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831): Georgia tried to impose laws but Indians = independent nation so they filed a lawsuit & Sup. Crt. said they ARE an independent nation but are not citizens so can't file lawsuit/Sup. crt. can't enforce their rights --> Worcester v. Georgia: Samuel Worcester filed lawsuit for the Indians --> Indians are distinct people w right to have separate political identity & Georgia violated treaties w Cherokee. However, Jackson refused to recognize this ruling --> Trail of Tears
  • Nicholas Biddle: head of bank, allies persuaded congress to extend charter --> Jackson sees it as blackmail bc if doesn't sign bill, they will oppose his reelection --> destroys bank by taking out $ (w help of Roger B. Taney) --> bankruptcy

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