Monday, November 30, 2015

Chapter 16: maintaining wellness

  • according to the survey conducted by the American College Health Association, 25% of college students reported that stress has had a negative effect on either a test or course grade
  • dietary substance that is linked to higher stress levels= caffeine
  • stress' 2 biggest sources: life events & daily hassles
  • handling stress:
-be in good physical & mental shape
-get adequate sleep
-modify your lifestyle (identifying parts of your life that don't serve you well, plan to change, carry out plans)
-reward yourself when achieve small goals
-keep payoff in mind
-practice a hobby
-get a massage
-deep breathing
  • depression is diagnosed more in women than men
  • depression is one of most common psychiatric disorders in U.S.
  • warning signs of suicide:
recent loss & inability to let go of grief
change in personality
changes in sleep patterns (too much/too little)
change in eating habits (too much/too little)
"i might as well end it all", "i want to kill myself", etc.
preoccupation w death
  • nutrition & weight management suggestions:
eat less red meat, butter, white rice, white bread, sweets
eat plenty of fruits & vegetables
actual fruit instead of fruit juices (contain a lot of sugar)
avoid fried foods & foods w a lot of fat & sugar
eat nuts & legumes & beans
watch portion sizes
eat breakfast (can jump start metabolism)
check nutrition labels (strive for diet w only 20% fat)
  • freshmen 15: term for weight that freshmen in college gain during 1st semester
  • eating disorders:
-anorexia: self-induced starvation, extreme preoccupation w food, body weight less than 85% of healthy weight
-bulimia: cycles of bingeing (eating a LOT of food) then purging (vomiting/abusing laxatives/exercising excessively/ fasting)
intense fear of gaining weight
restricting types of food like ones w fat
weighing less than 85% of recommended weight
stopping/not getting monthly menstrual period
seeing body as fat even though it's underweight
secrecy about food
denial of problem w eating
  • numerous studies indicate that about 75% of traditional-age college students have engaged in sexual intercourse at least once
  • STIs (sexually transmitted infections) spread through genital contact but sometimes can be mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-genital contact
  • many women don't show symptoms (considered asymptomatic)
  • HPV (human papillomavirus) is particularly common STI
  • if sexually active, talk to partner about protection against STIs & unwanted pregnancies
  • (latex rubber/polyurethane) condoms are a contraceptive & protect against spread of STIs
  • 50% of college students reported helping a drunken friend in the past year
  • five or more drinks for males and four or more drinks for females on a single occasion is considered heavy drinking, which is sometimes called binge drinking
  • heavy drinking --> increased risk of poor test performance, missed classes, unlawful behavior, violence, memory loss, drink driving, regretful behavior, vandalism, negative effect on academic performance, social relationships, decision making, & health
  • social smoking: smoking done only when hanging out w friends, drinking, or partying
  • 3 classes of commonly abused prescription drugs: 
-opioids: block transmission of pain messages to brain (morphine, codeine, vicodin, etc.)
-central nervous system depressants: can be useful in treating anxiety & sleep disorders UNDER A DOCTOR'S CARE. larger doses--> drug tolerance, if stop taking drug, brain activity can rebound & race out of control --> seizures & other (valium, librium, xanax, etc.)
-stimulants: enhance brain activity, increase in alertness, elevated blood pressure, increased heart rate (ephedrine, ritalin, dexadrine)
  • 5 most common illegal drugs:
-marijuana: effects can linger 3-7 days, long term use- risk of lung infections & cancer
-ecstasy (MDMA): synthetic drug, effects can last 4-6 hours, depletes serotonin, heavy users experience obsessive traits, anxiety, paranoia, sleep disturbance
-heroin: highly addictive drug with the potential to be more damaging and fatal than other opiates, body develops tolerance on 1st use, can be injected, smoked, or snorted. users of intravenous drugs can develop collapsed veins, infection of heart lining, etc.
-cocaine: heightens senses, highly addictive, feel tired & unmotivated & find it impossible to sleep during the crash 
-methamphetamine: "meth", easy to make, produce euphoria, enhanced wakefulness, increased physical activity, decreased appetite, chronic use can lead to psychotic behavior, intense paranoia, hallucinations, rages & violent behavior

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