Sunday, November 15, 2015

Chapter 10: writing & speaking effectively

  • "The act of writing gives the teachers a window into the mind of the student" -William Zinsser
  • your writing shows your professors how well you think & understand concepts
  • Peter Elbow - we should free write (writing the way that you speak) don't think about grammar or punctuation or editing, just write
  • getting started is what blocks students from approaching writing 
  • being writing the day you get the assignment, even if for just 10 or 15 min.
  • electronic communication lacks vocal inflection, visible gestures, & a shared environment
  • exploratory writing: helps first discover what you want to say. private & used as series of steps toward a published work
  • explanatory writing: "published", others can read it
  • writing process:
  1. prewrite/freewrite: idea stage, prepare to write, let thoughts flow, plan, research, outline
  2. writing/drafting: convert exploratory writing into rough draft of explanatory 
  3. rewrite/revise: polish work
  • thesis statement: short statement, defines purpose of paper
  • speaking: accentuate the positive, rely on wit, keep speaking
  • 6 fundamental speaking steps: 
  1. clarify your objective: what do you want to accomplish?
  2. analyze your audience: what does the audience already know and want/need to know about the topic? who is the audience & how do they feel about the topic?
  3. collect & organize your info: build, select, & arrange your info
  4. choose your visual aids: chart, video, poster, etc. make it easy to follow, eligible, big enough to see, explain them clearly; when you have visual aids, listeners can absorb 35% more info
  5. prepare your notes: minimal outline, rehearse in advance, number them
  6. practice your delivery: rehearse aloud
  • let hands rest comfortably at sides & you'll use hand gestures without knowing
  • make eye contact, pay attention to rate of speaking, pitch, & volume of voice, project confidence
  • GUIDE method:
Get your audience's attention: relate, state topic's significance, arouse curiosity, joke, tell story
"YoU"- don't forget yourself: don't play a role, be yourself
Ideas, ideas, ideas: list of all possible points you can make, choose most crucial points, use examples, statistics, & testimonies
Develop an organizational structure: chronological, problem-solution, pro-con, etc. begin w most important ideas, smooth transitions
Exit gracefully & memorably: summarize main points, conclude confidently
  • PREP(aration) formula:
Point of view: what you think
Reasons: why
Evidence/examples: specific facts or data to support
Point of view, restated: conclude
  • take time & effort to develop writing/speaking skills
  • understand differences btwn formal & informal communication

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