Monday, November 30, 2015

Chapter 16: maintaining wellness

  • according to the survey conducted by the American College Health Association, 25% of college students reported that stress has had a negative effect on either a test or course grade
  • dietary substance that is linked to higher stress levels= caffeine
  • stress' 2 biggest sources: life events & daily hassles
  • handling stress:
-be in good physical & mental shape
-get adequate sleep
-modify your lifestyle (identifying parts of your life that don't serve you well, plan to change, carry out plans)
-reward yourself when achieve small goals
-keep payoff in mind
-practice a hobby
-get a massage
-deep breathing
  • depression is diagnosed more in women than men
  • depression is one of most common psychiatric disorders in U.S.
  • warning signs of suicide:
recent loss & inability to let go of grief
change in personality
changes in sleep patterns (too much/too little)
change in eating habits (too much/too little)
"i might as well end it all", "i want to kill myself", etc.
preoccupation w death
  • nutrition & weight management suggestions:
eat less red meat, butter, white rice, white bread, sweets
eat plenty of fruits & vegetables
actual fruit instead of fruit juices (contain a lot of sugar)
avoid fried foods & foods w a lot of fat & sugar
eat nuts & legumes & beans
watch portion sizes
eat breakfast (can jump start metabolism)
check nutrition labels (strive for diet w only 20% fat)
  • freshmen 15: term for weight that freshmen in college gain during 1st semester
  • eating disorders:
-anorexia: self-induced starvation, extreme preoccupation w food, body weight less than 85% of healthy weight
-bulimia: cycles of bingeing (eating a LOT of food) then purging (vomiting/abusing laxatives/exercising excessively/ fasting)
intense fear of gaining weight
restricting types of food like ones w fat
weighing less than 85% of recommended weight
stopping/not getting monthly menstrual period
seeing body as fat even though it's underweight
secrecy about food
denial of problem w eating
  • numerous studies indicate that about 75% of traditional-age college students have engaged in sexual intercourse at least once
  • STIs (sexually transmitted infections) spread through genital contact but sometimes can be mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-genital contact
  • many women don't show symptoms (considered asymptomatic)
  • HPV (human papillomavirus) is particularly common STI
  • if sexually active, talk to partner about protection against STIs & unwanted pregnancies
  • (latex rubber/polyurethane) condoms are a contraceptive & protect against spread of STIs
  • 50% of college students reported helping a drunken friend in the past year
  • five or more drinks for males and four or more drinks for females on a single occasion is considered heavy drinking, which is sometimes called binge drinking
  • heavy drinking --> increased risk of poor test performance, missed classes, unlawful behavior, violence, memory loss, drink driving, regretful behavior, vandalism, negative effect on academic performance, social relationships, decision making, & health
  • social smoking: smoking done only when hanging out w friends, drinking, or partying
  • 3 classes of commonly abused prescription drugs: 
-opioids: block transmission of pain messages to brain (morphine, codeine, vicodin, etc.)
-central nervous system depressants: can be useful in treating anxiety & sleep disorders UNDER A DOCTOR'S CARE. larger doses--> drug tolerance, if stop taking drug, brain activity can rebound & race out of control --> seizures & other (valium, librium, xanax, etc.)
-stimulants: enhance brain activity, increase in alertness, elevated blood pressure, increased heart rate (ephedrine, ritalin, dexadrine)
  • 5 most common illegal drugs:
-marijuana: effects can linger 3-7 days, long term use- risk of lung infections & cancer
-ecstasy (MDMA): synthetic drug, effects can last 4-6 hours, depletes serotonin, heavy users experience obsessive traits, anxiety, paranoia, sleep disturbance
-heroin: highly addictive drug with the potential to be more damaging and fatal than other opiates, body develops tolerance on 1st use, can be injected, smoked, or snorted. users of intravenous drugs can develop collapsed veins, infection of heart lining, etc.
-cocaine: heightens senses, highly addictive, feel tired & unmotivated & find it impossible to sleep during the crash 
-methamphetamine: "meth", easy to make, produce euphoria, enhanced wakefulness, increased physical activity, decreased appetite, chronic use can lead to psychotic behavior, intense paranoia, hallucinations, rages & violent behavior

Chapter 15: appreciating diversity

  • diversity: variations in social & cultural identities among people living together
  • multiculturalism: ACTIVE process of acknowledging & respecting the diverse social groups, cultures, religions, races, ethnicities, attitudes, & opinions w/in a community
  • many of our beliefs come from personal experience & reinforcement
  • stereotypes: an oversimplified set of assumptions about another person or group
  • more likely to develop stereotypes if you have negative experiences involving members of a group
  • types of diversity: age, religion, physical ability, gender, sexual orientation, etc.
  • ethnicity: affiliation assigned to group historically connected by common national heritage or language
  • culture: aspects of group of people that are passed on or learned (traditions, beliefs, etc.)
  • race: refers to biological characteristics shared by groups (skin tone, hair texture, facial features, etc.)
  • in the fall of 2007, nearly 37 percent of American college students were twenty–five years of age or older
  • age diversity= opportunity to learn from others who have diff. life experiences
  • if someone has disability, treat them w respect, just like you would treat any student
  • gender studies courses could open up new ways of thinking about male & female characteristics, attributes, & identity as they relate to your world
  • inclusive curriculum: offers courses that introduces students to diverse people, worldviews, & approaches
  • education about diversity can increase problem-solving skills (diff. perspectives), positive relationships (common goals, respect, appreciation, commitment to equality), decrease stereotyping, & promo development of more in-depth view of world
  • service & volunteer organizations: connections to individuals interested in similar causes, provide link to social pipeline, camaraderie, & support & committed to community
examples: fraternities &sororities
  • career/major groups: can make contacts in field that could lead to career options
  • political/activist organizations: political affiliations/causes, provide debating events & forums to address current issues/events
  • special-interest groups: events highlighting specific interests/talents 
  • biases: tendency to hold certain perspective when there are valid alternatives
  • discrimination: act of treating people differently bc their race, ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic class, etc. rather than on merits
  • prejudice: preconceived judgement/opinion of someone based not on facts or knowledge ex. prejudging someone bc their skin color
  • student run organizations can provide multiple avenues to express ideas, pursue interests, & cultivate relationships
  • hate crime: any prejudicial activity and can include physical assault, vandalism, and intimidation
  • religious diversity has been central to the American experience since our colonial origins
  • successful college students have skills in understanding, appreciating, & embracing diversity
well, it's the morning after thanksgiving break & i woke up freezing. my hair was a mess since i got home & went to sleep last night after hoi cho (the thanksgiving festival at my church that i will blog about at a later date). it was time for a bun day. usually i leave my hair down bc it's impossible when it comes to buns. every time i try, it gets messed up or falls out. but finally, i got it. i also decided that it was too cold so i put on a sweatshirt, leggings, & the new scarf that my mom gave me. 

clear lens hipster glasses
faux septum piercing (either forever 21 or hot topic???)
army green scarf w black pattern (some booth at hoi cho where mom found it)
wet n wild's "lady and the vamp" balm stain (5 below)

army green scarf w black pattern (some booth at hoi cho where mom found it)
dark gray sweatshirt
black & white tribal print leggings (wet seal)
black boots

Friday, November 27, 2015

Chapter 14: establishing & maintaining relationships in college

  • build relations w college instructors: basis is mutual respect
  • what your instructors expect from you: come to class, do assigned work, listen, participate, think critically about course material, persist, honesty
  • instructors who know you well can write letters of recommendation
  • academic freedom: unlimited freedom of speech & inquiry granted to professors to further advancement of knowledge as long as human lives/rights/privacy are not violated
  • if things go wrong btwn you & instructor:
  1. ask for a meeting to discuss problem
  2. go to administrative ladder, starting at the bottom
  • in class, get at least 1 person's contact info so that you won't be lost in class
  • don't get lost in social media & let it interfere w academic success & well-being
  • relationships in college: many opportunities & different choices
  • don't marry before you & partner know for sure who you are & what you want in life
  • college students change life goals & outlook a lot which can negatively affect relationships
  • breaking up- explain feelings & talk it out, do it cleanly & calmly, be mature
  • don't get involved w your boss, professor, subordinate, etc.
  • marriage/parenting + college = hard
  • establish good relationship w parents by being aware of their concerns
  • find a comfort zone/niche in college to feel comfortable
  • don't overextend yourself when it comes to campus activities
  • service learning combines coursework w outside work in a community w goal of teaching civic responsibility & strengthening  community
  • protect your privacy online by not oversharing, restrict photos to friends only, etc.
  • a roommate doesn’t have to be a best friend, just someone with whom you can comfortably share your living space while in college
  • academic freedom allows you to express your own differing opinion
  • seek help from campus's counseling center if you find yourself having relationship problems
  • co-op programs: allow students to work in field of study while enrolled in college, offer valuable experiences & preview of what work in the field is like
  • you may need to take responsibility for some things that you previously relied on your parents for
  • 10% of first-year college students have difficulties getting along with roommates
  • helicoptor parent is a term coined by instructors and administrators to describe parents who exhibit hovering behaviors like trying to make decisions for a student or wanting to know what they are doing every minute of the day

Chapter 13: managing your money

  • budget: spending plan that tracks all sources of income & expenses during a set pd. of time
  • creating a budget:
  1. gather basic info: learn more about income & spending behaviors, how much $ is coming in & when? write it all down, track spending for a couple of weeks, record every bill & purchase
  2. build a plan: make columns of income, expected cost, & actual cost
  3. do a test run: use budget plan to see how things go
  4. make adjustments: improve budget, reallocate funds
  • fixed expense: will cost you the same amount every time you pay it
  • variable expense: one that may change
  • recognize difference btwn needs & wants: need= something you must have, wants= goods, services, experiences. NEEDS BEFORE WANTS.
  • live w others & share costs
  • consider pros & cons of living closer to campus, to save gas, time, etc.
  • use lost-cost transportation
  • seek out discount entertainment options- student discounts
  • embrace secondhand goods
  • avoid unnecessary fees
  • types of financial aid:
-need based scholarships: based on talent (past accomplishments, sports, arts, potential, etc.) & financial need, don't have to be repaid
-merit scholarships: based on talent but not necessarily financial need, don't have to be repaid
-grants: based on financial need, don't have to be repaid, students meed academic qualifications for grants by being admitted to college & maintaining acceptable grades
-work study: for students w financial need, job at the school
-student loans: best option is subsidized federal student loan
  • subsidized federal student loans: backed by gov., interest paid on your behalf
  • unsubsidized federal student loans: require you to make interest payments while you're enrolled
  • ^if not, interest is added to amount you owe (capitalization)
  • parent loan for undergraduate students (PLUS) loans: applied for & owed by parents, disbursed directly to students, higher interest
  • private student loans: stricter credit requirements, higher interest than federal loans, interest payments begin immediately
  • to qualify for aid, fill out FAFSA (free application for federal student aid) 
  • to avoid losing funding, meet grade requirements, complete courses, & finish degree on time
  • file for financial aid every year
  • meet filing deadlines
  • credit score: numerical representation of your fiscal responsibility derived from credit report w info about accounts in your name
  • w a credit card, don't just make minimum payment bc the remaining balance will be charged interest
  • don't use credit card to fund a lifestyle you can't afford
  • debit cards are good form of constraint on your spending 

Chapter 12: making the right choice for majors & careers

  • today's economy: global, unstable, innovative, boundaryless, customized, & fast
  • you are solely responsible for your career
  • to advance career, you must accept the risks that come w employment & plan for the future
  • college degrees do not guarantee employment
  • Patrick Coombs, author of Major in Success, recommends that you choose a major that you are passionate about
  • commitment to lifelong learning will help keep you employable
  • co-curricular experiences; learning occurring outside of classroom, through on-campus clubs, groups, co-op programs, internships, etc.
  • outsource: contract out jobs to external organization to get lower costs
  • Holland developed a number of tools & concepts that can help people organize their various dimensions to identify potential career choices
  • ^personality types:
-Realistic: concrete, down-to-earth, practical; competitive/assertive behavior; interest in activities w motor coordination, skill, & physical strength; action > verbal/interpersonal; like taking concrete approach to problem solving instead of relying on abstract theory; interested in scientific/mechanical areas
-Investigative: analytical, rational, logical; value intellectual stimulation/achievement; prefer to think > act, organize/understand > persuade; interest in physical/biological/social sciences; not people-oriented
-Artistic: creative, innovative, independent; value self-expression, relating w others, emotionally expressive; dislike structure, interested in cultural/aesthetic
-Social: kind, caring, helpful, understanding; value helping & making contribution; use strong speaking skills to teach/counsel/advise; drawn to close interpersonal relationships
-Enterprising: assertive, risk taking, persuasive; value prestige, power, status; supervise, lead, direct, persuade, interested in people & achieving organizational goals
-Conventional: neat, orderly, detail oriented, persistent; value order, structure, prestige, status; high self control; not opposed to rules & regulations, skilled in organizing, planning, scheduling; interested in data & people
  • factors that affect career choices: values (your important beliefs), interests, skills (ability to do something well), aptitudes (inherent strengths), personality, life goals & work values
  • your personality makes you who you are- can't be ignored when making career decisions
  • explore a number of career possibilities & academic majors
  • get involved w volunteer work & student organizations
  • follow you passion, do what you love
  • at one time, organizations provided structured ladders that employees could use to advance to a higher professional level within a company but not anymore
  • internship: valuable hands–on experience in a career, learn the nature of the industry & daily routines
  • content skills: cognitive, intellectual skills, acquired as you gain mastery in a field; includes writing proficiency, computer literacy, foreign language skills
  • transferable skills: general skills, apply/transfer to variety of settings; oral & listening abilities, leadership skills, critical thinking, problem solving, etc.
  • competencies:
-integrity: act in ethical manner
-innovation: evaluate/synthesize/create knowledge that will lead to new products/services
-initiative: recognizing need to take action
-commitment: love to do it & are willing to learn on own initiative
  • students who work paid jobs more than 15 hrs a week have lower college success chances
  • work-study aware: form of federal financial aid, covers portion of college costs in return for on-campus employment
  • 2 types of resumes: chronological format, or organized by skills
  • behavioral interview: questions you about past experiences & how they helped you learn & grow, assesses your skills & behaviors
  • interviewing: do mock interviews to get comfortable, dress appropriately


I am thankful for..
  1. the chance to wake up & experience another day
  2. my family
  3. my church & youth group
  4. Jason & Paul
  5. my beautiful home/wonderful room
  6. having delicious food to eat
  7. having a mom to make that delicious food
  8. safety & security
once in a while, it's good to reflect on the things that you're grateful for, 
so that you can better appreciate the good things in life. 

Tuesday, November 24, 2015

find your balance | lokai

everyone's been obsessed w Lokai bracelets & guess who finally got one? 
my brother, sister, & i ordered them & they're finally here & i really liked the message that the bracelet comes w.

post your photo w #livelokai or post to
the white bead is for life’s highest moments & the black is for life's lowest/most difficult moments.
Lokai's message says that when you hit a high, "stay grounded by sharing your success" & when you hit rock bottom, "gain perspective by helping others". they donate 10% of their net profits to their partners (linked): Susan G. KomenWorld Wildlife FundBest Buddiescharity: waterCure Alzheimber's FundPencils of PromiseMusic Beats HeartsAmerican Himalayan FoundationBent on Learning, & Kind Campaign.

there are different designs such as classic (clear), blue, red, pink, & wild (camouflage)

*the one thing about the Lokai bracelets that i want to caution you of is that they were smaller than i expected. make sure you know for sure if you fit a S, M, or L, bc my brother got me a S & it's tight when i try to put it on but it fits my wrist (so don't get a small unless your wrist is scrawny like mine or smaller!!)

Sunday, November 22, 2015

KVH Lock-In | 2015

 on friday afternoon, i headed over to church for the tntt lock-in.
it was a weekend (friday afternoon-saturday) of good fun, good food, good lessons, good good good.
we were graced w the presence of the lo duc band, as well as some SEAS members.

we had praise & worship, which is one of the best things, in my opinion. song after song of faith, hope, & love- always a blessing to get to jam out w the kids from TNTT.

"Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God." Matthew 5:8.

Tuesday, November 17, 2015

plaid hoodie flannel (ross)
black beanie (zumiez)
black leggings (wet seal)
brown fur ankle boots (ross)
Texas weather is a tricky thing to work around. last week, it was 59 degrees in the morning when i woke up & 86 when i got home from school. i wear jackets or sweaters to keep warm, only to be too warm by the end of the day. the struggle is real but i love a good outfit too much to not wear it. so this outfit was born the second that i bought the flannel & boots at ross. my sister & i were adventuring & went into ross just bc it was close & i found the flannel hoodie thing for $13. i've always wanted one but usually they're like, $25-$30 at the usual places that i go, so of course i had to get it. the boots were $25 but i thought that was ok considering i've been wanting combat boots for the longest time & those are $50-$60 so i settled for these instead. my sister was already telling me to wear black leggings w them & the beanie was added bc my hair was a mess. now that it's getting a bit cooler out, it's going to be sweater weather! i realize that sweater weather usually starts in Fall, but not in Texas!

Sunday, November 15, 2015

Chapter 11: developing library, research, & information literacy skills

  • info. literacy: ability to find, interpret, & use info to meet your needs
-computer literacy: electronic tools, conduct inquiries & present info
-media literacy: think critically about tv, film, ad, radio, book, internet, etc.
-cultural literacy: knowing what's going on around you
  • sorting: process of sifting through available info & selecting what's relevant
  • be info. literate:
  1. know how to find info you need
  2. learn how to interpret the info
  3. have a purpose
  • determine nature & extent of info needed: what info do you need & potential sources
  • access info effectively & efficiently: search strategies, organize notes 
  • evaluate info & sources critically: reliability & usefulness
  • incorporate info into knowledge base & value system: validate/understand/interpret info
  • use info effectively to accomplish specific purpose: plan, revise, communicate results to others
  • access & use info ethically & legally: etiquette to copyright & intellectual property
  • repeating info from different sources w/o interpreting puts you at risk of plagiarism
  • if given a general/broad topic, narrow it down first
  • use the library: has books, computers,databases, librarians who know MLA/APA/other format
  • electronic resources: online catalogs, periodical databases, World Wide Web
  • library catalogs: what is available, abstracts, where it is, put on hold
  • periodical databases: search articles, newspapers, magazines, journals
  • be resource saavy:
-use Help or FAQs
-write topic as question
-Boolean operators: "and", "or", "not" (a way to help limit the number of hits)
-use different terms/synonyms
-limit search by date, language, journal name, full text, etc.
-expand search if not many hits
  • avoid plagiarism: don't procrastinate, add URL to notes if researching  online, use footnotes
  • relevance: is it introductory/basic, definitional/descriptive, analytical, comprehensive, current?
  • authority in authors: academic degrees, institutional affiliations, established record of researching &publishing on topic, personal experience 
  • signs of source bias: overly positive or harsh language, hints of agenda, stubborn refusal to consider other POVs
  • synthesis: combining separate info & ideas to form more complete understanding
  • use someone else's exact words or ideas, must give person credit
  • Modern Language Association- book on how to cite sources

Chapter 10: writing & speaking effectively

  • "The act of writing gives the teachers a window into the mind of the student" -William Zinsser
  • your writing shows your professors how well you think & understand concepts
  • Peter Elbow - we should free write (writing the way that you speak) don't think about grammar or punctuation or editing, just write
  • getting started is what blocks students from approaching writing 
  • being writing the day you get the assignment, even if for just 10 or 15 min.
  • electronic communication lacks vocal inflection, visible gestures, & a shared environment
  • exploratory writing: helps first discover what you want to say. private & used as series of steps toward a published work
  • explanatory writing: "published", others can read it
  • writing process:
  1. prewrite/freewrite: idea stage, prepare to write, let thoughts flow, plan, research, outline
  2. writing/drafting: convert exploratory writing into rough draft of explanatory 
  3. rewrite/revise: polish work
  • thesis statement: short statement, defines purpose of paper
  • speaking: accentuate the positive, rely on wit, keep speaking
  • 6 fundamental speaking steps: 
  1. clarify your objective: what do you want to accomplish?
  2. analyze your audience: what does the audience already know and want/need to know about the topic? who is the audience & how do they feel about the topic?
  3. collect & organize your info: build, select, & arrange your info
  4. choose your visual aids: chart, video, poster, etc. make it easy to follow, eligible, big enough to see, explain them clearly; when you have visual aids, listeners can absorb 35% more info
  5. prepare your notes: minimal outline, rehearse in advance, number them
  6. practice your delivery: rehearse aloud
  • let hands rest comfortably at sides & you'll use hand gestures without knowing
  • make eye contact, pay attention to rate of speaking, pitch, & volume of voice, project confidence
  • GUIDE method:
Get your audience's attention: relate, state topic's significance, arouse curiosity, joke, tell story
"YoU"- don't forget yourself: don't play a role, be yourself
Ideas, ideas, ideas: list of all possible points you can make, choose most crucial points, use examples, statistics, & testimonies
Develop an organizational structure: chronological, problem-solution, pro-con, etc. begin w most important ideas, smooth transitions
Exit gracefully & memorably: summarize main points, conclude confidently
  • PREP(aration) formula:
Point of view: what you think
Reasons: why
Evidence/examples: specific facts or data to support
Point of view, restated: conclude
  • take time & effort to develop writing/speaking skills
  • understand differences btwn formal & informal communication

Wednesday, November 11, 2015

motivation and emotion

  • emotion: combo of arousal, physical sensations, & subjective feelings, occurs spontaneously/automatically in response to envir. stimuli
  • motivation: arouses, maintains, & guides behav. toward a goal
relationship btwn them: tightly related, both subjective, similar processes & structures in brain, overlapping characteristics
  • mood is more general than emotion. can feel different emotions while in a certain mood
  • homeostasis: steady internal balance/equilibrium
  • set point: value that is defended to maintain homeostasis
  • motivation begins w stimulus (external or internal)
  • drive: state of tension & arousal triggered by cues important for survival --> action --> drive reduction: state of relief & reward by removing tension & arousal from state of drive
  • incentive: reward, pulls behaviors in particular direction
  • drive = push, incentive = pull
  • intrinsic rewards: reward arises from w/in, ex. goal is met/feeling of accomplishment
  • extrinsic: reward from outside, ex. money/praise
  • internal cues: body needs nutrients
  • external cues: smell of food, time of day
  • glucose: type of sugar, plays role in hunger levels
  • glucose levels positive relationship w insulin <-- released by pancreas
  • insulin moves glucose from blood into cells
  • low levels of stored fat = hungry
  • body monitors fat stores by leptin: hormone secreted by fat cells, help body maintain appropriate level of stored fat 
  • fat stores & leptin = positively correlated
  • low fat stores --> activate parasympathetic (autonomic nervous sys.) --> metabolism slows
  • feeding stimulated by ghrelin & orexins
  • satiety: feeling full

exam #2 review | ch. 11, 12, 13, 14

Chapter 11:
  • interpersonal conflict: btwn 2 or more people
  • functional conflict: develops a clearer understanding of needs, attitudes, or beliefs
  • DESC scripts: strategy for expressing feelings/understanding others
Describe (why situation troubles you, as specifically/objectively as possible)
Express (how you feel about situation. "I", "me", "my")
Specify (how you'd like to see it resolved)
Consequences (of changing/not changing situation)
  • pseudoconflict: situation that gives an appearance of conflict even though it's not actual conflict (ex. misunderstandings, lack of clarity)
  • content conflict: conflict revolving around a matter of fact
  • compromising style: style of resolving conflict, middle range btwn assertiveness & cooperativeness 
  • social learning theory: we learn at least some of what we know by observing others & modeling the behaviors that we have observed
  • a conflict free relationship is not healthy
True, lack of conflict is not real & can contribute to a relationship becoming dysfunctional
  • some interpersonal conflicts take on a life of their own w participants unable to control them
False, people can learn to control how they respond to conflict
  • some interpersonal arguments are less destructive than others but all of them have negative consequences
False, conflict can have positive consequences
  • movies & video games have powerful influence on how we learn to deal w conflict
True, they give us models of people engaged in conflict, affecting our attitudes toward conflict & how we prefer to resolve it

Chapter 12:
  • abdicrat: one who has little need to control another
  • autocrat: one who has a great need to control/dominate others
  • happy people live longer than unhappy people
True, happy people live up to 35% longer than those who report being unhappy
  • as time passes, passionate love increases
False, partners in developed relationships express passion in "sparks & spurts" 
  • "what's up" is a question that opens a communication channel btwn 2 people
True, asking it functions as a conversation opener 
  • by talking about my friends instead of our friends, partners are able to bond more easily
False, talking about my instead of our friends, partners enter the differentiating stage of relationship
  • less talk about fewer topics increases a relationship's strength
False, less talk about fewer topics is a sign of a deteriorating relationship
  • Maslow's hierarchy of needs: Abraham Maslow's pyramidal hierarchy of human needs

  • intimacy: measure of closeness; sustained feelings of closeness & connection
  • latent intimacy: feelings of intimacy or connection not directly apparent to others
  • nascent friendship: rules & regulating interaction are worked out, hanging out more, 4th stage of Rawlin's 6 stages of friendship
  • task attractiveness: relationship attractor where you enjoy working together
Chapter 13:
  • self disclosure: willing sharing of info about the self w others
  • self disclosure involves willingly revealing private info about ourselves to another
True, when we self-disclose, we share personal info that the other person wouldn't have known
  • self disclosure carries no risk
False, self disclosure can leave the disclosing person more vulnerable
  • when disclosures occur too early in a relationship, the other person might feel uncomfortable
True, premature disclosures may lead to relationship discomfort
  • intimacy & self disclosure are positively related
True, coming to know another better increases feelings of closeness
  • relationship breadth: aspect of relationship measured by how many topics the parties discuss
  • relationship depth: aspect of relationship measured by how central the topics discussed are to the self-concepts of the individuals involved & how much the parties are willing to reveal about themselves & their feelings
  • social penetration theory: states that relationships typically begin w relatively narrow breadth & depth & develop over time
  • relational dialectics theory: pushes & pulls partners feel toward integration vs. separation, stability vs. change, & expression vs. privacy (conflicting forces)
Chapter 14:
  • systems theory: an approach to communication that stresses interaction of all elements in a communication network
  • reflective thinking framework: problem solving system designed to encourage critical inquiry
  1. what is the problem?
  2. what are the facts of the situation? (analyze the problem)
  3. what criteria must an acceptable solution meet?
  4. what are possible solutions?
  5. which is the best solution?
  6. how can the solution be implemented?
  • fewer than half of all Amer. families include a married couple
True, single or cohabiting adults now head more than half of all U.S. households
  • if a family has more than 2 people, then its members live in triangles
True, a triangle is a pair plus another person
  • mindguards facilitate groupthink
True, mindguards protect the leader from receiving dissenting info

Saturday, November 7, 2015

Mark 12:38-44

**i do not care what religion you are, what you believe in, or what you don't believe in. i am Catholic so i wanted to talk about this gospel but it's lessons are more than just about being Catholic, it's about being a person. during the Enlightenment, this thing called "Deism" came to be. Deism is a "theological/philosophical position" that focuses on reason & observation relating to a God. Thomas Jefferson created his own bible, The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth (a.k.a. Jefferson bible). it was basically him picking & choosing which parts of the bible that he agreed with. he took out the miracles of Jesus & anything "supernatural". all that was left was Jesus's life & his teachings.
whether or not you believe in Jesus, he was one of the greatest teachers. he taught people how to live morally, how to be authentic, & how to be kind to one another. so if that's how you need to look at it to read it, then do that.

"In the course of his teaching Jesus said to the crowds,
'Beware of the scribes, who like to go around in long robes
and accept greetings in the marketplaces,
seats of honor in synagogues, 
and places of honor at banquets.
They devour the houses of widows and, as a pretext
recite lengthy prayers. 
They will receive a very severe condemnation.'

He sat down opposite the treasury
and observed how the crowd put money into the treasury. 
Many rich people put in large sums.
A poor widow also came and put in two small coins worth a few cents. 
Calling his disciples to himself, he said to them,
'Amen, I say to you, this poor widow put in more
than all the other contributors to the treasury. 
For they have all contributed from their surplus wealth,
but she, from her poverty, has contributed all she had,
her whole livelihood.'"

i've heard this gospel 3 times today- TNTT, adoration & mass. it is one of the few bible stories that i know. 

 in the first part of the gospel, Jesus gives warning about the scribes who act as if they are holy by praying long prayers, but are really just hungry for power/influence, not trying to truly serve God. this is "the wrong kind of religion"; it is using you status/recognition for your own gain or to boost your own ego, instead of using it to help others or "through humble service & love". 

in the second part of the gospel, Jesus teaches us that it doesn't matter how much you give, but how much of yourself that you give. he observed the rich giving a lot of money, but a poor widow gave 2 small coins. she gave the treasury the most, bc that was everything that she had. her 2 small coins were worth more than all of the money that they rich people gave bc it truly came from her heart, from her soul. she doesn't have much but she gave all that she could. quality over quantity. "real giving is from the heart". i think that this is important bc you might look at someone & think that they have more than you do, but in reality, you might have more than they do. you have more to offer when you can offer yourself. offering your whole heart, your whole effort, your whole love, that is worth more than anything else that you could give someone. 

Thursday, November 5, 2015

HIST 1301 exam # 3 | review

Federalist Era (1789-1801) 
  • George Washington presidency:
Electoral college chose him
Didn't like factions
Judiciary act (1789): "an Act to Establish the Judicial Courts of the United States" (created Supreme court)
Created a cabinet-
>>secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson (anti-federalist, foreign policy experience, was upper class, liked lower class)

>>secretary of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton (federalist, was lower class, liked upper class). wanted to stabilize finances & credit of U.S., create overseas trade empire, tie wealthy to the government (get wealthy's support), & good relations w British (bc trade = $).

3 part plan:
foreign debt- pay back $ U.S. borrowed from other countries during revolutionary war so that U.S. could be seen as "trustworthy"
domestic debt- pay back $ U.S. owes to Amer. citizens- promissory notes. Jefferson didn't like this bc some lower class had to sell to upper class/speculators
state debt- central gov. pay off $ states borrowed to pay war. controversial: some states already taxed themselves to pay off the debt

created 1st bank of U.S. (1791-1811)
"justified by necessary & proper clause" (regulate currency, commerce, & taxes)
^anti-federalists don't agree bc it's not enumerated 
3 purposes:

  1. place to put tax $
  2. provide pool of capital for investment (factories/industrialists)
  3. regulate currency (inflation & deflation extremes)

Whiskey tax= "enumerated power" (excise tax)
controversial: tax is really high
farmers are angry bc they turn wheat into whiskey for extra $ --> refuse to pay --> hang tax collectors in effigy -->
Whiskey rebellion (1792-1794)
federalists see as anarchy --> send army to end "rebellion" --> no rebellion bc farmers left
anti-federalists don't see a problem bc there was no rebellion when the army got there

>>secretary of War: Henry Knox
handles Native American relations
says they own the land bc they were there first
if want the land: have to have a treaty or "just/defensive" war
  • John Adams presidency: John Adams vs. Thomas Jefferson, 1796
federalists --> Federalist party (1796), strongest in North 
anti-federalists --> Democratic-Republicans (1796), strongest in South & West

presidency is taken up w foreign policy (French revolution)

Storming of Bastille- July 14, 1789, Amer. saw it as a good thing, getting rid of a monarchy & becoming a republic, & bc French was also fighting British

European/Napoleonic war (1792-1815)
Reign of terror: in France, 1793-1794, executions of supporters of the old regime
Federalists turn against France bc seen as anarchy

XYZ affair: Federalists go to France to sign trade agreements --> French wanted $ (bribe) --> Federalists offended/angry ------------>
Quasi war (naval war, controversial: Congress must declare war but they didn't. Federalists thought it would make the party stronger
Quasi war strengthens Democratic- Republican party instead
pay for navy --> taxes on land/houses/slaves --> farmers angry bc taxes for a war they didn't want --> John Fries Rebellion

Federalists pass Alien Acts (1798)- targets immigrants so that the naturalization pd. would be 14 yrs instead of 5, so that they can't vote for Democratic-Republicans. controversy: president can imprison/deport any immigrant w/o reason/trial/warrant

Sedition act (1798): illegal to write/publish false/scandalous/malicious writing about gov.
Matthew Lyon: supported Democratic- Republicans, criticized John Adams --> arrested 
Luther Baldwin: made comment on how cannons at a parade for John Adams were shot provocatively & he wouldn't care if it shot through the president's butt --> arrested
Democratic-Republicans didn't support sedition acts

Election 1800: Jefferson vs. Adams: Jefferson won= Democratic- Republicans won
lame duck period (Federalists still in charge) --> midnight appointments (pick people to fill bureaucracy w Federalists) --> Judiciary act 1801 (6 new courts, 16 new district courts, John Marshall= Supreme court justice)

Democratic Republican Era (1801-1824)
  • Thomas Jefferson presidency: 
Democratic- Republicans get rid of Federalist things they didn't like (pardons Lyon & Baldwin, gets rid of whiskey & land/house/slave taxes-which downsizes navy, gets rid of alien acts) 

impeachment trials: get rid of Federalist judges for "high crimes & MISDEMEANORS"
John Pickering: public intoxication
Samuel Chase: failed impeachment bc can't impeach on political opinions
William Marbury: was promised a job of Justice of Peace but letter was never delivered --> lawsuit:
Marbury v. Madison 1803: section of judiciary act that let officials deliver commissions was unconstitutional so he doesn't get the job

Jefferson wants Mississippi river, New Orleans, & port of Mobile, French need $= willing to sell (except port of Mobile). Has to use necessary & proper clause bc can't buy territory on enumerated
Meriwether Lewis & William Clark explore that land, w help from Sacajawea, a Shoshone Indian
3 reasons for Lewis & Clark expedition: 
  1. explore Oregon territory & look for Northwest passage
  2. scientific expedition: gather info about land/what's out there
  3. meeting w Shoshone native Americans (friendly bc they were w Sacajawea)
U.S. economy rebuilding --> neutral shipping rights (how neutral countries trade w countries at war)
condition: neutral nation can't trade war materials. British & French at war (European wars) so they count coal, timber, food, etc. as war materials --> British stop American ships from trading w French.
British buy the supplies but French would pay more.

impressment of sailors: men forced into British navy but they don't want to be in it bc low pay, disease, harsh discipline, no freedom, away from land & family --> desert ships at neutral ports (U.S.)
U.S. allows them to be citizens & they become sailors or even join U.S. navy bc better treatment
Chesapeake (U.S. ship) & Leopard (British ship): British steal men back from Americans. Amer. want to go to war but Jefferson said no bc they'd lose 
embargo act 1807: no trade w anyone= bad for Amer. economy --> non-intercourse act 1809: no trade w British
North doesn't like bc they trade w Canada (British owned) --> smuggling --> Martial law
  • James Madison presidency:  Election 1808
Democratic- Republican

War Hawks w/in party: 1st post-revolutionary war generation, want war w Britain but:
Britain has a blockade around American ports, American navy can't do anything

-War of 1812, "2nd war of independence": 
battles against Native Americans & Britain
Tecumseh (Britain's side) creates camp to keep Americans from invading Canada (battle of the Thames), British were supposed to send reinforcement but didn't --> Shawnee Indians die --> have to give up land in Ohio
Massacre at Fort Mims: Baton Rouge killed, Americans angry --> Battle of Horseshoe Bend: non-assimilated & assimilated Creek Indians' land taken

Battle of put-in-bay: only victory of U.S., stopped British invasion of America
^Commodore William Hazard Perry: in charge of Amer. navy at Great lakes
Battle of Baltimore: British tried to burn Baltimore but Fort McHenry withstood
Capture of D.C.: British burned everything except office of patents/copyrights
Treaty of Ghent: Dec. 24, 1814, ends war, doesn't solve issues --> slaves that escaped to Britain were supposed to be returned but weren't
Battle of New Orleans: Jackson led, Americans win --> "Democratic- Republicans won the war" --> get rid of Federalists --->
  • Era of good feelings (James Monroe: 1815-1824): only 1 political party
adopted Federalist ideas --> new policies:
-internal improvement: infrastructure, bridges, roads, ports, etc.
-2nd bank of U.S. (1816): brought back bc it worked as safe place for tax $, regulated currency, pool of capital for factories/industrialists
-protective tariff: on imported goods, to protect Amer. merchants/factories/workers

-political & foreign policy issues:
Adams-Onis (transcontinental) treaty: Quincy Adams & Onis Gonzales
Wanted Florida & Port of Mobile
Spain sold Florida to U.S. for $5 million. U.S. promised to not invade U.S.-Spanish border

Missouri compromise (1820): Missouri petitioned to be state
it would tip the balance btwn slave/non-slave states
Maine also wanted to be it's own state
Missouri= slave state, Maine= non-slave state

Native Americans & westward expansion
  • assimilate vs. war:
treaty indians: give up land to have peace/avoid war & bc Americans promised they could keep the rest of their land
resistance: battle of fallen timbers (1794) --> treaty of Grenville (1795)

Tecumseh asked Creek Indians for help but they assimilated 
few that refused: Baton Rouge- attack Americans at Fort Mims

Cherokee Indians assimilated to keep land. had written language, converted religion, Amer. clothes, names, schools, government based on U.S. constitution, farmers --> private property --> cotton --> slaves, extremes of wealth & poverty
  • Louisiana purchase: (under Jefferson's presidency) had to abandon "only enumerated powers" mindset bc constitution said nothing about buying land from foreign power
^treaty said that all free inhabitants would enjoy rights of citizens (women, free blacks, Indians, etc.)
free slaves lost freedoms
deteriorating Indian relations
movement of Indians to west of App. mountains
Indians outnumbered --> should they assimilate?
  • Tecumseh & Tenskwawatawa docs
  • War of 1812 effects on Indians: (War of 1812 details previously mentioned)
Battle of Thames: Canadian betrayal --> Shawnee Indians die --> have to give up land in Ohio
Battle of Horseshoe Bend: Baton Rouge defeated --> Creek Indians get punished & land is taken
  • Indian removal act: made Indians relocate to West of Mississippi bc wanted their good farmland. North Indians --> Kansas & Nebraska, South Indians --> Oklahoma
Trail of Tears: removal of Indians, grabbed & put in stockades, only have the possessions they had w them/grabbed <-- ethnic cleansing

Economic conditions
  • North vs. South development (1800-1820):
Yeomen farmers: in North & West, subsistence farmers (grow food to provide for family), lower class
economy improves --> $ supply= more stable
sell extra food (wheat) to Europe (bc there's war there) --> $$ --> higher standards of living = luxary goods
Northern middle class is expanding (buying consumer goods)
Southern lower class is expanding (plantation agriculture- growing to sell), cotton
cotton gin created by Eli Whitney --> cotton production spreads --> slaves are more valuable 

Panic of 1819:
Napoleonic wars end --> farmers' goods not needed 
-bank failures: regulation of currency decreased extremes of inflation & deflation, which were gambled on --> bankrupt --> your $$ in bank = gone
-cotton prices: go up --> try to find other sources for cotton (India)
-land ventures: land speculators buying up land (that was taken from Creek & Shawnee Indians)
since farmers aren't making $, they aren't buying land from speculators so demand & prices go down.
Depression shows that the U.S. = market economy (buyers & sellers)
  • major transportation changes:
transportation & information revolution
effects onsocietyeconomypolitics

road building: benefits trade, pay to use, $ used for road maintenance to keep tax low (state paid)
paved road expansion: national road (funded by government), goes east to west

steamboat (Robert Fulton): goes against current= can use on Mississippi river, goes north to south. 
New Orleans --> Natchez, Mississippi --> Memphis, Tennessee --> St. Louis, Missouri --> switch to keel boats bc too shallow --> Minneapolis, Minnesota
can transport goods, trading centers were built along the river= merchants, hotels, saloons, farmers
limitations: fuel source = coal. faster = more coal for boiler --> hotter --> overheat --> blow up

canal: Erie canal (state paid), canal locks (interconnected series of locks that raise & lower water lock gates) 
limitations: need water, flat land (bc can't go through mountains), doesn't work in cold weather (frozen water) --> 

railroad expansion: to overcome canal limitations (goes over mountains, deserts, don't need to stop during cold weather)
limitations: expensive (land, tracks, employees, etc.), different gauges. South & North gauges different (south excluded)
  • Industrial revolution:
putting out system: put work out to others --> lower prices, more style/choices; limitations: can't oversee bc workers work at home 
textile production: fabrics/clothing. benefits: more colors/patterns/styles, more available to lower/middle class, mass produced = cheaper 

factories: centralize production in 1 location so can oversee
long, narrow rectangle (to get natural light), near water (hydroelectric power for looms)
  • Lowell Mills & Lowell Mill Girls:
Francis Cabot Lowell: gets Paul Moody's help to memories British textile mills & create in Boston
Lowell Mill Girls: unmarried, not many job choices, paid less, can work longer than children, "easier to control", "no unions/strikes", expect to marry then leave, surplus of women bc men in West
have to overcome British perception of Mill girls ("prostitutes")
they take the jobs bc: pay for male relatives' college, not many other jobs, higher wages, social life, dowry

Andrew Jackson (from Tennesee)

end of era of good feelings
"corrupt bargain" -Henry Clay
says nothing about big issues= can't make enemies
attacks Adams (anti-intellectual strain)
log cabin myth ("i'm just like you")

Vice president: John Calhoun (S. Carolina)
Secretary of State: Martin Van Buren (New York)
  • growth of Democratic & Whig political parties:
political parties:

  1.  mobilize voters (free BBQs, drinking, vote as a group after a party)
  2. raise $ to support candidate ($$ for ^ parties)
  3. select candidates
  4. pick candidates at conventions
  5. have rallies/parades/picnics/BBQs --> excitement
  6. create own newspapers from parties' POV
  7. scandal/personal attacks/throwing shade
Democratic party is strong in the South & West
  1. majority rules (doesn't always work bc tyranny of majority, takes away minority rights)
  2. limited national government 
  3. Federal government needs to protect ordinary people against power of elite
Whig party: loyal opponents of King
thought Andrew Jackson was acting like a King/Tyrant bc he veto'd anything he didn't like.
Whigs wanted to recharter bank --> Jackson vetoes
  • effects of political changes in period:
universal white manhood suffrage: all white men can vote, takes away women & free black men's rights 
rise of mass political parties
  • major events during presidency:
1. protective tariff: North likes, South & West don't (farmers/consumers). Calhoun wrote: Tariff of Abominations (1828) to show North how bad tariffs were --> it passes (which is the opposite of what Calhoun wanted) --> Calhoun wrote: South Carolina Exposition and Protest to protest Tariff of Abominations

ideas of South Carolina Exposition and Protest:
nullification (if state thinks law passed by Congress = unconstitutional --> nullify/don't enforce in that state)
states give Federal Government the power, so states can limit/check

Hayne-Webster debate (West = angry at North for passing a law they didn't like)
Hayne uses Calhoun's ideas, Webster gives North's response: the supreme court, not the state, determines if laws are constitutional & the people give the Federal government power, not states

nullification crisis (1832): Congress pass another tariff that South Carolina doesn't agree w. -->
force bill: sent military into South Carolina --> Henry Clay creates compromise: pay taxes & Congress will lower them --> deescalates 

2. Indian removal act

3. 2nd bank of U.S.- head of bank: Nicholas Biddle. Jackson destroys bank by taking out $ (w help of Roger B. Taney) --> bankruptcy
  • economic changes in the period:
land speculation --> $ circulates faster --> inflation --> Specie Circular (1836): people who bought land had to pay using $ backed by gold (specie) --> deflation
led to economy crashing & panic of 1837 (during Van Buren's presidency)

  • Liberal Christian groups:
-Unitarians: all humans worship same God, should "unite", humans are born good (reject original sin), all can be saved (reject predestination), reason comes from God, not bible, active in reform movements, mostly in Massachusetts, mostly middle class. William Ellery Channing. "Humans are too good"

-Universalists: universal salvation, rejected predestination & original sin also. people can be in Hell for a pd. of time but eventually will be saved. Throughout New England. John Murray. "God is too good"

-Transcendentalism: rise above/go beyond mind/senses/proof/experience. Intuition comes directly from God. meditation, nature, get away from human noise
  • Evangelical Christian groups:
evangelists: traveling preachers
some evangelical denominations: methodists, baptists 
every person was a "moral free agent"
didn't use market society
railed against greed & indifference to welfare of others= sins
ministers promoted controlled individualism= essence of freedom
importance of industry, sobriety, self-discipline
  • Second Great Awakening:
popular religious revivals --> added religious underpinning to celebration of personal self-improvement/reliance/determination
spread to all regions of country & democratized Amer. Christianity
stressed right of private judgement in spiritual matters
possibility of universal salvation through faith & good works
revivalist ministers used market revolution to spread message
opening of religion to mass participation
showed how end of gov. support for established churches --> religious pluralism
emergence of Mormonism

Chapter 8: 
  • Edmond Genet: French envoy, trying to arouse support for his beleaguered government, commissioned Amer. ships to attack British ships under French flag. Washington asked for his recall.
  • Jay's treaty: John Jay went to Britain to present objections
treaty had nothing about Britain stopping impressment/rights of American shipping
Brit. only agreed to leave outposts on western frontier
U.S. was to favor British imported goods 
treaty cancelled American-French alliance & recognized Bri. economic & naval supremacy
sharpened political divide in U.S. --> formation of organized opposition party
  • rights of women & women & the Republic:
-Mary Wollstonecraft: published A Vindication of the Rights of Women. call for more access to education & paid employment
-Hannah Adams: 1st Amer. woman to support herself as an author (published religious history & New England history)
-Judith Sargent Murray: one of the era's most accomplished women, essays for Massachusetts Magazine, pen name = "The Gleaner". studied alongside brother
  • Haitian revolution:  
-Saint Domingue: jewel of French overseas empire, slave revolution (1791)
-Toussaint L'Ouverture: educated slave, led slaves
  • Gabriel's rebellion: planned rebellion (kill some whites & hold some hostage) was betrayed by a scared slave. whites met them & executed the Africans (failed rebellion)
  • Fletcher v. Peck (1810): Court extended judicial review to state laws
  • Barbary wars: 1st encounter w Islamic world
  • Macon's bill #2: allow trade to resume but if France or Britain interfered w Amer. rights, embargo act would be back
Chapter 9:
  • telegraphs: instant communication, invented by Samuel F.B. Morse, used morse code, messages sent over electric wires --> sped flow of info & brought uniformity to prices
  • American sys. of manufacturers: factories produced textiles, goods, tools, etc., relied on mass production of interchangeable parts, could be rapidly assembled.
  • Irish & German immigration: freedom appealed to everyone in Europe
Irish: Great famine (1845-1851) blight destroyed crop --> potato famine --> go to America --> take any job, any wage --> replace American workers
Catholic --> discrimination --> Nativists (feared impact of immigration on American political & social life)
German: failed revolution of 1848 in Europe (wanted democracy) --> monarchs reasserted power --> went to America
  • Dartmouth college v. Woodward (1819): Sup. crt. defined corporate charters issued by state legislatures as contracts, future lawmakers can't alter/rescind
  • Gibbons v. Oden (1824): ^5 years later, court struck down monopoly the NY legislature granted for steamboat navigation
  • Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842): nothing illegal about strikes or unions
  • John O'Sullivan: NY journalist, "manifest destiny" (U.S. had divine mission to occupy all of North Amer.)
  • John Jacob Astor: (son of poor German butcher who emigrated to U.S.) shipped furs to China & imported teas & silk, invested wealth in Manhattan real estate, built Astor house --> nation's most famous hotel. died the richest man in the U.S.
Chapter 10:
  • Dorr War: Rhode Island required voters to own real estate valued at $134 --> many unable to vote --> people's convention drafted new state constitution where all WHITE men could vote --> reformers ratified their constitution in extralegal referendum --> federal troops came --> Dorr arrested for treason --> failed rebellion
  • Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America: French writer visited U.S. & wrote Democracy in America: account of society in midst of political transformation. 5 values critical to America's success: liberty, egalitarianism, individualism, populism, laissez-faire 
  • information revolution: market revolution --> expansion of public sphere --> explosion in printing --> information revolution. steam power in newspaper printing --> increase in output & mass circulation. new styles of journalism, growth of reading public 
  • American sys.: blueprint for gov.-promoted economic development that James Madison put forward. rests on new national bank, tariff on important manufactured goods to protect Amer. industry, & federal financing of improved roads & canals
  • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819): bank is a legit. exercise of congressional authority under Constitution's clause "necessary & proper" laws --> Maryland could not tax the bank
  • John Tallmadge: Republican congressman (NY), intro of more slaves should be prohibited, children of those already in Missouri be freed at 25 yrs old --> controversy: passed in the House, died in the Senate --> Missouri Compromise 
  • US & Latin American wars of independence: Spain's colonies rebelled --> independent nations --> U.S. extended diplomatic recognition to the new Latin American republics
Parallels: Mother country making colonies contribute to its finances, rebelled, independence
Latin American constitutions more democratic, gave everyone the right to vote
-Monroe Doctrine: James Monroe "how U.S. regards the west", good IDEA but can't enforce.
1. West hemisphere is closed to colonization (Europe can't colonize N. or S. Amer.)
2. U.S. won't get involved in Europe's wars
3. warned European powers not to interfere w Latin America
  • Johnson v. M'Intosh (1823): Indians not owners of their land but had "right of occupancy" bc they weren't farmers, they were nomads
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831): Georgia tried to impose laws but Indians = independent nation so they filed a lawsuit & Sup. Crt. said they ARE an independent nation but are not citizens so can't file lawsuit/Sup. crt. can't enforce their rights --> Worcester v. Georgia: Samuel Worcester filed lawsuit for the Indians --> Indians are distinct people w right to have separate political identity & Georgia violated treaties w Cherokee. However, Jackson refused to recognize this ruling --> Trail of Tears
  • Nicholas Biddle: head of bank, allies persuaded congress to extend charter --> Jackson sees it as blackmail bc if doesn't sign bill, they will oppose his reelection --> destroys bank by taking out $ (w help of Roger B. Taney) --> bankruptcy

Wednesday, November 4, 2015

on monday, someone mentioned to me that they liked the whole black-clothing look i had going on before i reverted back to my usual clothes. i told them that all of the black was just for halloweek & that i only have so many black clothes. i wasn't sure if i should have been offended bc they only liked me in the black clothes, & it's not like i dress for them anyways, i hardly even know them! but i didn't say any of that.
today, they commented that i was "back to black", & that i looked adorable, hehe. :3

"i don't do mornings" t-shirt dress (forever 21)
panda tights (hot topic)
faux septum nose ring (hot topic)
clear lens hipster glasses

Monday, November 2, 2015

exam # 1 review | ch. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10

Chapter 1:

  • basic model of communication: 

-encoding: putting thoughts into words
-decoding: attaching meaning to a message
  • dialect: imposition of a region on a language
  • accent: imposition of a language on a language
  • pitch: highness or lowness of voice
  • inflection: rise & fall of voice (~~~~~~)
  • monotone: unchanging in pitch ( ----------)
  • 5 characteristics of communication:
  1. it's a dynamic process: ongoing/continuous
  2. it's unrepeatable: every contact is different, never the same
  3. it's irreversible: can't take it back/erase impact
  4. it's learned: environment/words/actions teach you what works & what doesn't
  5. it's characterized by wholeness & nonsummativity: more than the sum of it's parts
  • linear model of communication (one way): 

  • transactional model of communication (back & forth): 

Chapter 2:
  • social comparison theory: people compare themselves to others to get a feel for how their talents/abilities/qualities measure up
  • rejection: negation/disagreement w a self-appraisal
  • disconfirming: communication that denies another person's significance
Chapter 3: 
  • selective exposure: exposing self to people/messages that confirm own existing beliefs/values
  • attribution theory: assigning meaning to behaviors by ascribing motives & causes
Chapter 4:
  • hearing: physiological process of receiving sound
  • listening: evaluating & attaching meaning to what you hear
  • Hurier model/stages of listening:
  1. hearing
  2. understanding/attending
  3. remembering
  4. interpreting
  5. evaluating/analyzing
  6. responding (verbally/non-verbally)
  • styles of listening:
  1. people oriented: focus on emotions & interest of others
  2. action oriented:  focus on clarity & preciseness (how to solve a problem)
  3. content oriented:  focus on facts & details
  4. time oriented:  focus on efficiency & succinctness
  • types of listening:
  1. appreciative: entertainment
  2. comprehensive: acquire info
  3. critical/deliberate: make an evaluation
  4. empathetic: therapeutic, emotional, understanding
Chapter 6:
  • paralinguistics: how you speak/variations in voice. non-verbal aspect of voice
  • proxemics: non-verbal space/distance
  • haptics: non-verbal touch
  • illustrators: non-verbal bodily cues to reinforce message
  • regulators: steer convo, influence turn taking
  • adaptors: unintentional movement, "nervous habits"
Chapter 10:
  • power/leadership types:
-reward: someone has something that you want, they provide you w something (ex. job, $, perks, etc.)
-coercive: someone being forceful/threatening, negative consequences (ex. boycotts)
-expert: someone w special knowledge/skill/background/training (ex. doctors)
-legitimate: someone w a position/role higher than you, who they are (ex. teacher, police, employer)
-referent: someone you respect/admire (ex. older sibling, celebrity) 
-persuasive: someone w well thought out arguments, logical appeal (ex. lawyers)
  • trigger cues: stimulate automatic response
  1. reciprocation (you owe me)
  2. social proof (everyone else is in favor of it)
  3. consistency (it's worked many times before)
  4. liking (if you love me, support my ideas)
  5. authority (bc i want you to)
  6. scarcity (do it before you can't do it anymore)
  • Maslow's hierarchy of needs: