Monday, October 26, 2015

HIST 1301 exam # 1 | textbook review

Chapter 1:
  • exploration & conquest
-Hernan Cortes: 1st explorer to encounter major Amer. civilization (Aztec)- Tenochtitlan. he conquered them by: weapons, gunpowder, disease
-Francisco Pizarro: conquered Incas
  • colonists in Spanish America
-criollos: people born in colonies, of euro. ancestry
-haciendas: large scale farms, spanish landlords
-peninsulares: people of euro. birth
-mestizos: people of mixed origins
-repartimiento system: replaced encomienda. Indians= legally free, entitled to wages, still have to perform fixed amounts of labor
-Juan de Onate: destroyed Acoma
  • French empire
-Samuel de Champlain: explorer, founded Quebec, 1608. insisted on religious toleration for all Christians, said Indians were not inferior in intellect or culture
-seigneuries: land/estate granted to well-connected nobles
-engages: indentured servant
-Jesuits: missionary, wanted to convert Indians to Catholicism, allowed Indians to keep much independence & traditional religious practices
-metis: children of marriages btwn Indian women & French traders/officials
  • Dutch empire
-Henry Hudson: employed by Dutch East India Company, sailed to NY harbor, looked for Northwest passage, 1st european to sail up the river--> Hudson river
-Dutch reformed church: protestant national church, emerged from reformation. freedom of conscience in PRIVATE religious devotion
-Dutch west india company: awarded monopoly of Dutch trade w Amer.
-Peter Stuyvesant: governor in ^. refused religious diversity
-patroons: shareholders, agreed to transport tenant for agricultural labor. had to purchase title of land from Indians
-William Keift: expansionist. took land from Algonquians--> 3 yrs war

Chapter 2:
  • Richard Hakluyt's A Discourse Concerning Western Planting: 23 reasons why Queen Elizabeth should support est. of colonies
  • Maryland's settlement: proprietary colony
-Cecilius Calvert: son of the favorite of King Charles, had proprietary colony & had "free, full, & absolute power"
-proprietary colony: land grant & gov. authority given to single indiv.
  • Roger Williams: minister, criticized existing order. thought church & state should be separate to avoid corruption
  • Rhode Island's settlement: ^ & his followers est. religious freedom
-dissenters: protestants who had a problem w/belonged to denominations other than est. church
  • Connecticut's settlement: Hartford & New Haven
-Thomas Hooker: minister, est. settlement @ Hartford, 1636
  • Anne Hutchinson: more educated about bible than most ministers, bible study w women, men came. covenant of grace (grace is free & you don't have to do anything but accept it), salvation. put on trial.
  • Magna Carta: Great charter, agreement btwn King John & group of barons. attempt to put end to civil unrest. list of liberties granted by king
  • English Civil war: Stuart Kings accused by House of Commons of endangering liberty (taxing w/o Parliamentary consent) victory for Parliament
-Oliver Cromwell: head of Parliamentary army, ruled 1649-1658
-Maryland's act concerning religion: principle of toleration, Christians had freedom of liberty

Chapter 3:
  • New Netherlands & New York's settlement
-covenant chain: alliance by Sir Edmund Andros, imperial ambitions of English & Indians reinforced one another
-5 Iroquois nations: helped Andros ^, cleared NY of rival tribes, helped British attack French
-charter of liberties: required that election held every 3 yrs among male property owners & freemen (NY). reaffirmed traditional English rights
  • Carolina's settlement
-Indian slavery: Indians got guns for deer hides & capturing other Indians as captives to sell
-fundamental constitutions of Carolina: issued by proprietors, proposed to est. feudal society
  • Barbados: island owned by English planters, turned to slave labor. more black population than white. generated more trade than all English colonies combined
  • Leisler's rebellion: regime divided colony, reflected depth of hatred
  • German migration: largest group of newcomers from Euro.
-"Liberties of conscience": chief virtue of British North Amer.
  • South Carolina's aristocracy: theaters, social events, lavish lifestyle, cultivating arts, house slaves. viewed society as hierarchy. 

No comments:

Post a Comment